Chapter 1 - Introduction To Anthropology Flashcards Preview

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Savanna

(Also spelled Savannah) A large flat grassland was scattered trees and shrubs. Savannas are found in many regions of the world with dry and warm to hot climates.

1

Hominins (hominid)

Colloquial term for members of the evolutionary group that includes modern humans and now extinct bipedal relatives.

2

Species

A group of organisms that can interbreed to produce fertile offspring. Members of one species are reproductively isolated from members of all other species (I.e., they cannot mate with them to produce fertile offspring)

3

Bipedally

On 2 feet; walking habitually on two legs

4

Anthropology

The field of inquiry that studies human culture and evolutionary aspects of human biology; includes cultural anthropology, archaeology, linguistics, and physical, or biological, anthropology.

5

Primates

Members of the mammalian order Primates (pronounced "pry-may'-tees), which includes lemurs, lorises, tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans.

6

Evolution

A change in the genetic structure of a population. The term is also frequently used to refer to the appearance of a new species.

7

Adaptation

An anatomical, physiological, or behavioral response of organisms or populations to the environment. Adaptations result from evolutionary change (specifically, as a result of natural selection)

8

genetic

Having to do with the study of gene structure and action and the patterns of inheritance of traits from parent to offspring. Genetic mechanisms are the foundation for evolutionary change.

9

Behavior

Anything organisms do that involves action in response to internal or external stimuli; the response of an individual, group, or species to its environment. Such responses may or may not be deliberate, and they aren't necessarily the result of conscious decision making (which is absent in single-celled organisms, insects, and many other species).

10

Continuum

A set of relationships in which all components fall along a single integrated spectrum (for example, color). All life reflects a single biological continuum.

11

Culture

Behavioral aspects of human adaptation, including technology, traditions, language, religion, marriage patterns, and social roles. Culture is a set of learned behaviors transmitted from one generation to the next by nonbiological (I. E., Nongenetic) means.

12

Worldview

General cultural orientation or perspective shared by members of a society.

13

Bio cultural evolution

The mutual interactive evolution of human biology and culture; The concept that biology makes culture possible and that developing culture influences the direction of biological evolution; a basic concept and understanding the components of human evolution.

14

What are the four main subfields of anthropology?

1. Cultural or social anthropology 2. Archaeology 3. Linguistic anthropology 4. Physical or biological anthropology

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Applied anthropology

The practical application of anthropological and archaeological theories and techniques. For example, many biological anthropologists work in the public health sector'

16

Ethnographies

Detailed descriptive studies of human societies. In cultural anthropology, an ethnography is traditionally the study of a non-Western society.

17

Artifacts

Objects and materials made or modified for use by hominins. the earliest artifacts are usually tools made of stone or, occasionally, bone.

18

Paleo anthropology

The interdisciplinary approach to the study of earlier hominins-- their chronology, physical structure, archaeological remains, habitats, and so on.

19

Osteology

The study of skeletal material. Human osteology focuses on the interpretation of the skeletal remains from archaeological sites, skeletal anatomy, bone physiology, and growth and development. Some of the same techniques are used in paleoanthropology study early hominins.

20

Bio archaeology

The study of skeletal remains from archaeological sites

21

Paleo pathology

The branch of osteology that studies the evidence of disease and injury in human skeletal (or, occasionally, mummified) remains from archaeological sites.

22

Forensic Anthropology

An applied anthropological approach dealing with legal matters. Forensic anthropologists work with coroners and others in identifying and analyzing human remains.

23

Science

A Body of knowledge gained through observation and experimentation; from the Latin sciencia, meaning "knowledge."

24

hypothesis (hypotheses)

Provisional explanation of a phenomenon. hypotheses require verification or falsification through testing.

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Empirical

Relying on experiment or observation; from the Latin impiricus, meaning "experienced"

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Scientific method

An approach to research whereby a problem is identified, a hypothesis (provisional explanation) is stated, and that hypothesis is tested by collecting and analyzing data.

27

Data (datum)

Facts from which conclusions can be drawn; scientific information.

28

Quantitatively

Pertaining to measurements of quantity and including such properties as size, number, and capacity. When data are quantified, they're expressed numerically and can be tested statistically.

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Theory

A broad statement of scientific relationships or underlying principles that has been substantially verified through the testing of hypotheses.