Chapter 7 - Primate behavior p155 Flashcards Preview

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Behavior

Anything organisms do that involve action in response to internal or external stimuli. The response of an individual, group, or species to its environment. Such responses may or may not be deliberate and they aren't necessarily the results of conscious decision making.

1

Ecological

Pertaining to the relationships between organisms and all aspects of their environment (temperature, predators, non predators, vegetation, availability of food and water, types if food, disease organisms, parasites, etc)

2

Behavioral ecology

The study of the evolution of behavior, Emphasizing the role of ecological factors as agents of natural selection. Behaviors and behavioral patterns have been favored because they increase the reproductive fineness of individuals (I.e. They are adaptive ) in specific environmental contexts.

3

Social structure

The composition, size and sex ratio of a group of animals. The social structure of a species is, in part, the result of natural selection in a specific habitat, and it guides individual interactions and social relationships.

4

Metabolism

The chemical processes within cells that break down nutrients and release energy for the body to use. (When nutrients are broken down into their coin kent parts, such as amino acids, energy is released and made available for the cell to use.)

5

Matrilines

Groups that consist of a female, her daughters, and their off-spring. Matrilineal groups are common in macaques. P159

6

Life history traits

Characteristics and developmental stages that influence reproductive rates. Examples include longevity, age at sexual maturity, length of time between births, etc.

7

Dominance hierarchies

Systems of social organization wherein individuals within a group are ranked relative to one another. Higher-ranking animals have greater access to preferred food items and mating partners than lower ranking individuals. Dominance hierarchies are sometimes are sometimes called "pecking orders."

8

Communication

Any act that conveys information, in the form of a message, to another individual. Frequently, the result of communication is a change in the behavior of the recipient. Communication may not be deliberate but may instead be the result of involuntary processes or a secondary consequence of an intentional action.

9

Autonomic

Pertaining to physiological responses not under voluntary control. An example in chimpanzees would be the erection of body hair during excitement. Blushing is a human example. Both convey information regarding emotional states, but neither is deliberate, and communication isn't intended.

10

Grooming

Picking through fur to remove dirt, parasites, and other materials that may be present. Social grooming is common among primates and reinforces social relationships.

11

Displays

Sequences of repitious behaviors that serve to communicate emotional stages. Nonhuman primate displays are most frequently associated with reproductive or agonistic behavior and examples include chest slapping in gorillas or, in male chimpanzees, dragging and waving branches while charging and threatening other animals.

12

Affiliation behaviors

Amicable associations between individuals. Affiliation behaviors, such as grooming, reinforce social bonds and promote group cohesion.

13

Intragroup

Within the group as opposed to inter group (meaning between groups)

14

Territories

Portions of an individuals or groups home range that are actively defended against intrusion, especially by members of the same species

15

Core area

The portion of a home range containing the highest concentration and most reliable supplies of food and water. The core area is defended.