Chapter 1: Introduction to Chemistry Flashcards Preview

SAT Subjest Test Barron's Chemistry > Chapter 1: Introduction to Chemistry > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 1: Introduction to Chemistry Deck (33):
1

matter

anything that occupies space and has mass

2

mass

quantity of matter that a substance possess

3

weight

varies as the gravitational constant does

4

inertia

property of an object that resists change of position or motion

5

density

relationship of mass to a unit volume (m/V)

6

states of matter

-solid (definite shape and size), liquid (definite volume, no definite shape), gas (no definite shape or volume)
-change states by adding or removing heat

7

pure substance

-can be divided into the smallest particle that still holds the properties of the substance

8

element

-only made of one kind of atom

9

atom

-basic building block of matter, cannot be easily created or destroyed

10

compound

-two or more atoms of an element joined together in a pure substance (usually ionic)
-properties of compounds are different than those of the individual elements that make it up
-homogeneous

11

Law of Definite Proportion

-compound always contains its component elements in fixed ratio (by mass)

12

molecule

two or more elements joined together (usually covalently) (compounds are molecules, not vice versa)

13

mixture

-composition is indefinite (heterogeneous or homogeneous)
-parts of the mixture react differently (expand the solvent, etc.)

14

physical property

-something that can be observed (no change occurring to the structure of it's smallest component)
-ex: color, odor, solubility, density, melting point

15

chemical property

-observation made when something changes chemically (reacts with another substance)
-iron rusting in moist air, water decomposition (any synthesis, decomposition, or reaction)

16

physical change

-does not alter the composition of the matter, usually a change in form or state
-often a reversible process (water changing state)

17

chemical change

-change in composition and structure of a substance
-always accompanied by energy changes

18

exothermic reaction

-energy released from forming a substance is greater than the energy put in by reactants (ΔH<0 because released energy)

19

endothermic reaction

-new structure absorbs more energy in formation than what the reactants add (ΔH>0 bc energy put in)

20

activation energy

-the minimum quantity of energy that the reacting species must possess in order to undergo a specified reaction

21

Law of Conservation of Matter

-matter can neither be created nor destroyed

22

energy

-the capacity to do work (work is done when a force is applied over a distance, measured in Joules like energy)
4.18x10^3 J = 1 kilocalorie
-necessary for both physical and chemical changes
-converted from one form to another

23

forms of energy

-heat, light, sound, mechanical energy, chemical energy, electrical energy

24

potential energy

-stored energy from overcoming forces in nature

25

kinetic energy

-energy of motion

26

enthalpy (ΔH)

ΔH= Hproducts- Hreactants
-change in heat energy in a system

27

Law of Conservation of Energy

energy is neither created nor destroyed, just transferred between the system and surroundings

28

Law of Conservation of Mass and Energy

-mass and energy are interchangeable under certain conditions

29

scientific method

logical approach to solving problems by observing and collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, and then theories

30

qualitative/quantitative

-quantitative: making measurements to describe
-qualitative: descriptions of nature

31

temperature

K= C+273

32

specific heat capactiy

-amount of energy required to raise one gram of a substance by one degree

33

precision vs. accuracy

-precision: how reliable or close each measurement was to another
-accuracy: how close a measurement is to the accepted value