Chapter 5: Gasses and the Gas Laws Flashcards Preview

SAT Subjest Test Barron's Chemistry > Chapter 5: Gasses and the Gas Laws > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 5: Gasses and the Gas Laws Deck (23):
1

greenhouse effect

-steady rise in temperature bc of fossil fuel consumption

2

properties of oxygen

-slightly soluble, slightly heavier than air
-will not burn
-less reactive than ozone (3O2) because of energy content

3

electrolysis

-process of passing an electric current through water to cause it to decompose
-other methods of obtaining hydrogen include decomposing a compound, passing steam over really hot iron

4

physical properties of hydrogen

-colorless, odorless, tasteles
-only 1/14 a dense as air
-slightly soluble in water
-diffuses faster than any other gas

5

chemical properties of hydrogen

-high heat of combustion, can be burned in air
-good reducing agent (withdraws oxygen away easily)
-doesn't support ordinary combustion

6

atmospheric pressure/barometric pressure/air pressure

-force per unit area that is the result of the weight of a mixture of gases
-higher the altitude, the lower the pressure

7

standard pressure

760 torr = 760 mm Hg =1 atm = 101,325 Pa

8

mercury barometer

-mercury rises as more atmospheric pressure is exerted on the dish

9

manometer

-when the mercury is on the same level, the atmospheric pressure equals the vessel
-when the pressure of the vessel is greater than the atmosphere, the pressure in the vessel= 760mm Hg + displacement
-when the pressure of the vessel is less than the atmosphere, the pressure of the vessel is 760 mm Hg - maximum displacement

10

Kinetic Molecular Theory

-gas molecules exhibit perfectly elastic collisions (energy conserved)
-volume occupied by gas particles is negligible
-gas particles are not attracted to one another
-average KE determined by the temperature
-gas particles move in a straight line until they collide with each other or the sides of the container

11

properties of gasses

-as the temperature increases, more molecules are able to overcome Ea, also a greater distribution of KE of gas paricles

12

diffusion

-particles moving from area of high concentration to low concentration

13

effusion

-particle movement through a tiny orifice into an evacuated chamber

14

Graham's Law of Effusion (Diffusion)

Rate1 / Rate2 = (M2 / M1)1/2
-the rate at which gas diffuses or effuses is inversely proportional to the square root of its molecular mass

15

standard temperature and pressure

273 K, 1 atm (needed to use gas laws)

16

Charles's Law

V1/T1 = V2/T2 (directly proportional, true when pressure held constant)

17

Boyle's Law

P1V1 = P2V2 (temperature is held constant)

18

Avogadro's Law

V1/n1 = V2/n2

19

Gay Lussac's Law

P1/T1 = P2/T2

20

Combined Gas Law

P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2

21

Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure

Ptot = P1 + P2 + P3...

22

Ideal gas Law

PV=nRT where R equals 0.08206 Latm/molK

23

Gas Collected Over Water

subtract water vapor pressure at the given temperature from the atmospheric pressure to find partial pressure of gas