Chapter 11: Acids, Bases, and Salts Flashcards Preview

SAT Subjest Test Barron's Chemistry > Chapter 11: Acids, Bases, and Salts > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 11: Acids, Bases, and Salts Deck (15):

properties of acids

-water (aqueous) solutions of acids conduct electricity
-acids willreact with metals that are more active than hydrogen ions
-litmus (when in contact with acid, purple becomes pink-red) and phenolphthalein (pink to colorless)


strong acids

HNO3, HCl, HBr, HI, HClO4, H2SO4


strong bases

LiOH, NaOH, KOH, RbOH, CsOH, Ca(OH)2, Sr(OH)2, Ba(OH)2


Arrhenius Acid/Base Theory

-acid is a substance that produces H+ ions in aq. soln.
-base is a substance that produces OH- ions in aq. soln.


properties of bases

-conduct electricity in aq. soln.
-litmus changes from red to blue, phenolphthalein turns pink from colorless


Bronstead-Lowry Acid Base Theory

-acids are proton donros and bases are proton acceptors


conjugate acid/base

-conjugate acid is the base after receiving the proton
-conjugate base is the acid after giving away a proton
-the stronger the acid, the weaker the conjugate base bc attracting a proton would cause the strong acid to just give off the proton again (HCl would become Cl- and then wouldn't stay unionized as HCl)


Lewis Theory

-acid is the electron pair acceptor and base is the electron pair donor (when H+ bonds, it gains electron pair)



-use of volumetric measurement to determine the concentrations of "unknown" solutions or solids
-slowly drip unknown solution into known concentration solution until reach end point (the indicator changes color)


equivalence point

-enough acid i added to neutralize the base (and vice versa)
-AKA moles of titrate equal moles of analate


useful equations

MaVa=MbVb for titrations
-keep in mind examples where acids and bases have more than one hydrogen or hydroxide when the equation is balanced (need 2HCl for every one Ca(OH)2)
molarity= mols/L


how to pick an indicator

-end point is neutral: BTB, litmus
-end point is acidic: methyl orange
-end point is basic: phenolphthalein



-create solutions in equilibrium that are able to resist changes in pH by bonding with the added H+ or OH-
-created by weak acids or weak bases and their conjugates



-ionic compounds created in neutralization, single/double displacement, synthesis, or metallic oxide with nonmetallic oxide


amphoteric substance

-substances that can act as the proton donor or acceptor (H2O, NH3, HCO3-)