Chapter 1: Introduction to Physiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1: Introduction to Physiology Deck (27):
1

What is Physiology?

The study of how the body works, biological functions and it's component parts. In other words, the study of normal functioning of a living organism - cells, tissues, organs, and systems.

2

What does physiology attempt to explain regarding function and mechanism?

Attempts to explain both function and mechanism. Function helps explain why things happen such as why muscles contract (to provide heat) and mechanism describes how muscles contract.

3

What is Anatomy?

Anatomy is the study of the structure of living organisms.

4

What is Pathophysiology?

The study of how the body functions in a disease state.

5

What is Homeostasis?

Maintenance of a relatively stable bodily environment. Equilibrium, dynamic balance

6

What are the themes of physiology discussed in this lecture?

Homeostasis maintains internal stability -Equilibrium, dynamic balance Structure determines Function -Molecular, cellular, organ system Living organisms need Energy -Acquisition, transfer, storage Communication -Electrical, chemical

7

What are the levels of organization of life that Chemistry, Molecular Biology, Cell Biology, Physiology, and Ecology focus on?

Chemistry -Atoms, Molecules Molecular Biology -Molecules, Cells Cell Biology -Molecules, Cells, Tissues Physiology -Molecules, Cells, Tissues, Organs, Organ Systems, Organisms, Population of One Species. Ecology -Organisms, Population of One species, Ecosystem of Different Species, and the Biosphere.

8

What are the four primary tissues in our bodies?

Muscle, Nervous, Epithelial, and Connective tissue. -The structure of each tissue --> function --> physiology

9

What are organs?

-An organ is composed of two or more tissues that serve different functions within the organ. -Skin has all four primary issues.

10

What are organs that perform related functions placed into?

Organ systems.

11

What are all the major organ systems in our bodies?

Integumentary system, nervous system, endocrine system, skeletal system, muscular system, circulatory system (can also be separated further to the cardiovascular system included), immune (also lymphatic) system, respiratory system, urinary system, digestive system, and reproductive system.

12

Name the major organs and primary function of the integumentary system.

The major organs are... -Skin -Hair -Nails Serve to... -Protect -Thermoregulate the body

13

Name the major organs and primary function of the nervous system.

The major organs are... -Brain -Spinal cord -Nerves Serves to... -Regulate and control other body systems.

14

Name the major organs and the primary function of the endocrine system.

The major organs are... -Hormone-secreting glands such as the pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal glands. Serves to... -Secrete regulatory molecules called hormones.

15

Name the major organs and primary function of the skeletal system.

The major organs are... -Bones, cartilages Serves to... -Provide Movement -Provide Support

16

Name the major organs and primary function of the reproductive system.

The major organs are... -Gonads, external genitalia, associated glands and ducts. Serves to -Continue the human species

17

What are the major organs and primary functions of the digestive system?

The major organs are... -Mouth, stomach, intestine, liver, gallbladder, pancreas. Serves to... -Breakdown of food into molecules that enter the body.

18

What are the major organs and primary functions of the urinary system?

The major organs are... -Kidneys, ureters, urethra. Serves to... -Regulate blood volume and composition.

19

What are the major organs and primary functions of the respiratory system?

The major organs are... -Lungs, airways The primary function is... -Gas exchange

20

What are the major organs and primary functions of the immune system?

The major organs are... -Bone marrow, lymphoid organs The primary function is... -Defense of the body against invading pathogens

21

What are the major organs and primary functions of the circulatory system?

The major organs are... -Heart, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels The primary function is... -Movement of blood and lymph.

22

What is intrinsic regulation?

-Regulation of the organ by cells within the organ sensing a change and signaling neighboring cells to respond appropriately.

23

What is extrinsic regulation?

-Regulation of the organ by other outside organs (e.g. brain) to regulate an organ using the endocrine or nervous system.

24

What is positive feedback?

-Not common but amplifies change by moving the system further away from homeostasis. (Stimulus + response are in the same direction such as responding to high blood pressure with more blood pressure). -Example, in childbirth oxytocin increases the strength of uterine contractions which in turn causes more oxytocin release.

25

What is negative feedback?

-Homeostasis is achieved by antagonistic effectors (an organ or cell that acts in response to a stimulus) that move in opposite directions. (Stimulus + response is in opposite directions and seeks to maintain homeostasis) -Example: the stimulus to the body is intense heat, the response is the sweet and cool.

26

What is long distance vs short distance homeostatic control. 

  1. Local control is restricted to the tissue or cell involved.
    In local response a relatively iosolated change occurs in a tissue.
    A nearby cell or group of cells senses the change in their immediate vicinity and responds, usually by releasing a chemical. The response is restirtced to the region where th change took polace hence the term local. 
  2. Long distance control also refers to reflex control which uses the nervous system, endocrine system or both.  It can be broken down into two parts: response loop and a feedback loop. The response loop can be broken down futher into: input signal, integrating center, output signal. 
    The input side of the response loop begins wiht a stimulus, and a special sensor monitors this. If the sensor is activated by the stimulus it sends an input signal to the integrating center. The intergating center evaluates the information and initiates an output signal. The output signal directs a target to carry out a response and if successful the response brings the regulated variable back into the desirable range. 

 

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