What is the plasma composition of blood? what are the sub compositions as well?
Blood is composed of:
3. Trace elements and vitamins
5. Organic molecules:
a. nitrogenous waste
d. amino acids
Define: Whole blood, hematocrit, differential WBC count, complete blood count, plasma and serum
1. Whole blood: blood drawn directly from the body from which none of the cpmonents such as plasma or platelets are present
2. Hematocrit: a test that measures the percentage of whole blood is made up of red blood cells.
3. Differential white blood cell count determines the number of each type of white blood cell present in the blood
4. Complete blood count: measure of the concentration of white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets in the blood.
5. Plasma: the pale yellow liquid component of the blood that normally holds the red blood cells. it is the intravascular fluid part of extracellular fluid
6. Serum: an amber colored protein rich liquid that seperates out when blood coagulates
What make up the fluid parts of blood? What accounts for the formed elements of the blood?
1. Plasma accounts for about 58% of blood. it is composed of:
a. serum and plasma proteins
b. water, proteins, and solutes
2. Formed elements account for about 42% of blood which is composed of:
a. red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets
1a. WBC and platelets make up a thin "buffy coat" between plasma and red blood cells when centrifuged.
What is the shape of an erythrocyte? What organelles does it lack and why. What unique protein is found on an erthrocyte and what is the purpose?
1. Erythrocytes are bioconcave cells with a 7.5 micrometer diameter with a 2.0 micrometer thickness
2. Lacks nucleus, mitochondria and organelles
a. Helps improve gas transport
3. Erythrocytes have a protein called hemoglobin.
a. erythrocytes contain 280million hemoglobin molecules which help it bind to oxygen
What does hemoglobin specialize in? What is the structure of hemoglobin? What does it bind to and how many can bind to it?
1. Hemoglobin specializes in oxygen transport
2. Hemoglobin has a heme ring pigment and globin protein
3. With an iron ion atom at the center of each group of heme rings, four oxygens can bind to the four heme groups in a hemoglobin
What is sickle cell anemia? What causes it? What effect does it have on hemoglobin? What is one positive of sickle cell anaemia?
1. Sickle cell is a hereditary blood disorder that is common in African or Mediteranian descendants
2. A single amino acid group substitution is the cause
3. The hemoglobin structure becomes modified which prevents it from binding well with oxygen
4. Carriers have a better survival advantage against malaria
What are platelets/ thrombocytes? How does it help during injury?
1. Platelets: are small cell fragments that break off of megakaryocytes and act to stop bleeding.
2. Severe trauma to a blood vessel causes platelets to clot. Other components in the plasma produces a web of fibrin that helps trap erythrocytes and platelets.
What is hematopoiesis? Where does hematopoiesis occur in both the fetus and birth to adulthood?
1. Hematopoiesis: the formation of blood cells
2. a. Fetus: hematopoiesis takes place in the liver, spleen, thymus, and lypmh nodes
b. Last trimester to Adult: hematopoiesis takes place in the red marrow of spongy bone
What is the pluripotent hemopoetic stem cell? What ie the rate of production of red blood cells? What is secreted to induce red blood cell production? What causes the secretion?
1. Pluripotent stem cells: are the precurser cell from which all other cells in the body descend from
2. RBCs exit red marrow 2million cells per sec, also the same rate as their death
3. Erythropoietin is secreted by the kidneys to promote red blood cell production
a. Secreted when O2 lovels are low
What is an antigen? What is an antibody?
1. Antigens: are molecules that produce and immune reponse and production of antibodies
2. Antibody: ar proteins that bind to specific antigens
What is the name of the blood typing system? What is it based on? What are the types?
1. It is called the ABO blood typing system
2. Based on the antigens that are on the cell surface of erythrocytes
3. a. Type A: has an A antigen
b. Type B: has a B antigen
c. Type AB: has both A and B antigens
d. Type O: has neither A or B antigens
What happens if there is transfusion of the wrong blood type to an individual?
There is a trasnfusion reaction: if a person receives the wrong blood. Antibodies will bind to erythrocytes and cause agglutination or clumping
What is another type of protein found on the surface of a cell? How does it relate to pregnancy and what can be a side effect? How can this be prevented?
1. Antigen D or Rh- and Rh+ are proteins on the cell surface
2. If a mother is Rh- and she is exposed to an Rh+ of her fetal blood then her body can make antibodies against it.
a. In future pregnancies her new anti-Rh antibodies will corss the placenta and attack and kill the fetuses red blood cells.
3. A RhoGAM injection can be given to prevent hemolytic diesease.