Chapter 6: Cell Communication Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6: Cell Communication Deck (10):
1

Describe the extracellular environment.

  • The extracellular environment includes everything located outside the cells
  • Cells receive nourishment from and release wastes into the extracellular environment
  • Cells communicate with each other by secreting chemical signal molecules into ECF

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2

What are the two types of physiological signals used in cell to cell communication.

  • There are 2 basic types of physiological signals
    Electrical signals
    Changes in membrane potential of cell
    Chemical signals
    Secreted by cells into ECF
  • Only target cells have receptors to signal molecule

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3

What are the four ways cells communicate?

  • Gap junctions
  • Contact-dependent signals
  • Autocrine & paracrine signals
  • Long distance communication using electrical and chemical signals
     

4

Explain gap junctions.

Gap junctions form direct cytoplasmicconnections between adjacent cells.

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5

Explain Contact-dependent signals. 

Contact-dependent signals require interaction between membrane molecules on two cells.

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6

What are the autocrine and paracrine signals?

  • Autocrine act on cell that secreted them.
  • Paracrine signals are secreted by one cell and diffuse to adjacent cells.

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7

How do long distance signals work?

  • Endocrine cells secrete hormones into blood. Only target cells with receptors for the hormone respond to the signal

  • Nervous system uses electrical and chemical signals to communicate.
  • Neurotransmitter chemicals secreted by neurons diffuse across a small gap (synapse) to target cell.

  • Neurohormones are chemicals released by neurons into blood to act at distant targets.

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8

List and describe the signal pathways.

If a target cell has a receptor for a signal molecule, binding of this messenger molecule initiates a response.

  1. 1st messenger binds
  2. Binding activates receptor
  3. Receptor activates intracellular 2nd messenger
  4. Last molecule in pathway initiates protein response

 

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9

What are the 4 types of membrane receptors?

  1. Receptor-channel: ligand binding opens or closes the channel
  2. Receptor-enzyme: ligand binding to a receptor-enzyme activates an intracellular enzyme
  3. G protein-coupled receptor: ligand binding to a G-protein coupled receptor an ion channel or alters enzyme activity
  4. Integrin receptor: ligand binding to integrin receptors alters the cytoskeleton

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10

What is Tyrosine Kinase?

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