Explain this diagram(3)
-1. Mouse model mimicking sickle cell; trying to see if they can fix the tissue; collect skin cells - trying to get them to think and act via treatment with viruses as undifferentiated stem cells. (embryonic-like stem cell--> induced pleuripotent stem cells)
2. next isolated them into individual populations
- gene transfer/therapy to correct mutant.
- only need to change one copy of an allele since it is recessive.
- create a genetic correct then make it diff to blood stem cells.
3. missing in transfer?
- need t establish in bone marrow therefore present cells there need to be depleted via erradiation.
- then injection added! technically only need one blood cell to re-establish bone marrow.
- not capable of sustaining life but will get to the blastocyst stage;
the ability of a single cell to divide and produce all of the differentiated cells in an organism
- all organisms are composed of one or more cells
- cell is the structural unit of life for all organisms
-cells can arise only by division from a pre-exisitng cell (blurry)
Give a summary of the basic cell properties! (10)
-functional unit of life
-complexity and organization
=energy requirements: cellular respiration= atp/photosynthesis
-performing mechanical activities such as movment of the cell
-self regulating (homeostasis )
- first human cells for extended culturing
L> aggressive form of cancer
L> first human cell line ...doesn't need a substrate ie cancer
- they are structurally ___, biologically ___.
General characteristics of prokaryotes?
- no membrane bound nucleus
- bacteria = ex
- reproduce via binary fission ( dna replicates and they separate anchoring on either side of the cell which then dviding into two parts that have the potential to grow to the size of the original cell) --Asexual
- adapt easily to environment
Prokaryotes are sigle or multi-cellular?
- __% prokaryotes we think exist- they exist in___?
What two domains are prokaryotic?
- Domain Archaea
- Domain Bacteria
- methanogens- produce methane as a by product oxygen depleted environments
-halophies - live in high salt concentrations
-acidophiles- live in very acidic environments
-thermophiles- can tolerate extreme temperatures
- Regular bacteria
- Mycoplasma - smallest known cell...contains about 500 genes.. lack cell wall...generally antibiotics attack cell wall synthesis but not in this guy
Characteristics of eukaryotes?
- plasma membrane
-m bound organelles
Label the parts of the cell
- what type of cell is this?
Types of eukaryotic cells?
- unicellular: complex single celled organisms
-multicellular: different cell types for different functions
What are features held in common by prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
- plasma membrane of similar cosntruction
- genetic information encoded in DNA using identical genetic code
- similar mechanisms for transcription and translation of genetic information, including similar ribosomes
-shared metabolic pathways (eg glycolysis and TCA)
- similar mechanism of photosynthesis (between cyanobacteria and green plants
- similar apparatus for conservation of chemical energy as ATP ( located in the plasma membrane of prokaryotes and the mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotes)
Features of eukaryotic cells not found in prokaryotes
- division of cells into nucleus and cytoplasm, separated by a nuclear envelope containing complex pore structures
-complex membranous cytoplasmic organelles (includes ER, golgi, lysosomes, endosomes, peroxisomes and glyoxisomes)
- specialized cytoplasmic organelles for aerobic respiration (mitochondria) and photosynthesis(chloroplasts)
-presence of two copies of genes per cell (diploidy), one from each parent.
Are prokaryotes inferior to eukaryotes?
- ex: we couldn't survive without bacteria in us...vitamin K is provided for blood clotting via post translational modification...
ex: bacteria in our intestine provide us with vitamin B which is a cofactor in metabolism of fatty acids.
- mitochondria and chloroplast may have originated from prokaryotes~
L> size and shape similar to prokaryotes
- dna organization not linear or have histones
- reproduce via bianry fission (within our cells)
- protein synthesis....can do it themselves but not everything~
Explain the endosymbiont theory in terms of events that happened.
1. Composite event :
L>An anaerobic, heterotrophic prokaryote (archaea) engulfied but not digested an aerobic prokaryote (bacteria)
- the aerobic heterotrophic prokaryote developed mitochondria within it from the aerobic prokaryote it took up.
-pasma membrane invagination occured making the cell pre-eukaryote.
-Then the nuclear envelope precursor developed and an endoplasmic reticulum precursor as well..(primitive eukaryote)
2. Composite Event:
-no addition of other prokaryotic parts = develops into animal cells, fungal and protist cells
-If it now takes up a photosynthetic cyanobacterium it will develop chloroplasts...and develop into algal and plant cells.
What are the mechanisms required for the endosymbiont theory for the cell involved?
- large size and ability to phagocytize
Phylogeny of the three domains indicates what?
- nucleotide sequence similarities between representative member of the three primary domains
- used rRNA genes -> WHy?? BECAUSE WE ALL MAKE THEM......ie not all have mito or chloro
- all came from a common ancestor
-body fauna (total)
- taking microbiome and all of their genomes present then we can match the huge genome to specific genomes of those present
Based on the nucleotide sequence of single genes, Woese proposed three major cell linages???
1. Bacteria: include gram (+), gram (-) and cyanobacteria
2. Archaea: include halophiles, thermophiles. methanogens and acidophiles
3. Eukarya: plants, animals and fungi protists
1. Escherichia coli (bacterium)
2. Saccharomyces (yeast)
3. Arabidopsis (mustard plant)
4. Caenorhabditis elegans (nematode)
5. Drosophila (fruitfly)
6. Mus musculus (mouse)
1. transcription, translation, DNA synthesis
2. least complex eukaryote
L> still has a large number of proteins that are homologous to human proteins
L> can be grown in haploid state (1 copy of genes) ...therefore you only have to change one allele to see the affect aka see mutations immediatly
3. extremely small genotype
L> rapid generation time, large seed production, few inches ing rowth (easier to keep in lab)
4. defined number of cells app 100
L> develop according to a percise pattern of cell division that has to do with larval stages
L> short gen time
L> translucent ie you can see whats going on in it.
5. small complex
L> easy to manipulate
L> polytein chromosomes: large chromosomal puffs when translationally active !
L> individual genes can be studied for evolution and gene expression
6. 1000's of different genetic strains have been developed
L> freez embryos since we cannot house them all! ---later use
L> nude mouse: phenotypic characteristics due to surpressed immune sytem!
L> do transplants
**Influenza H1N1 infects only human respiratory epithelium?
The Human Perspective: The Prospect of Cell Replacement Therapy. Explain it !
- take somatic cell and fuse it with enucleated oocyte
- nucleated oocyte
-allow to develop into blastocyst
-ES cells....5-7 days old blastocyst
-growes ES cellls in culture
-induce them to differentiate into the desired cells
-transplant back into the body
**demethylation prevents them from going back to a somatic cell
The Human Perspective: The Prospect of Cell Replacement Therapy:
- Stem cells are ?
- undifferentiated cells capable of self renewal and differentiation
- adult stem cells can be sued to replace damaged or diseased adult tissue
**hematopoietic stem cells can produce blood cells in bone marrow
**neutral stem cells can be used to treat neurodegenerative disorders!