Chapter 11:DNA Transcription and Translation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11:DNA Transcription and Translation Deck (96)
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1

Where is a segment of DNA transcribed?

In the nucleus

2

Where is mRNA translated?

cytoplasm

3

As more mutations occur in DNA what risk increases?

cancer

4

Does translation always have to be perfect?

NO but transcription within the nucleus does

5

List characteristics of DNA!

DNA:
1. T= A
2. double stranded
3. 250 000 000nt
4. DNA poly
- Primer
- 1 in 10^7 nt errors

6

List haracteristics of RNA!

1. U= A
2. single stranded
3. 1000 nt
4. RNA Poly
- no primer
- 1 in 10^4 nt errors

7

Does RNA poly have more errors than DNA poly?

- YES
- it does not require a poly like DNA but it has many more errors but that is okay because it is not a fixed representation of the DNA

8

What does it mean that RNA is a mobile nucleic acid?

- permits cell to separate information storage in the nucleus ( or not if you're a prokaryote) into information utilization which is the RNA

9

How can you amplify the amount of protein in a cell?

- by transcribing/transcription many times

10

DNA Transcription:
- Double stranded DNA must be ___ to expose a single stranded DNA template.

- unwound

11

DNA Transcription:
- Ribonucleotide addition is to the ___ DNA strand.

- non coding DNA strand

12

DNA Transcription:
- there is a temporary __/__ hybrid?

- DNA/RNA hybrid
(~9nt)

13

DNA Transcription:
- With your DNA it is double stranded and there are certain sequences within your DNA that tell the RNA poly ?

- which strand needs to be used as the template and which is not

14

DNA Transcription:
- What is the template used for?

- mRNA transcription (well RNA)

15

DNA Transcription:
Which of these strands of DNA is the coding strand and which is the non coding strand?
5'AATTGGC3'
3'TTAACCG5'

- AATTGGC = coding strand
- TTAACCG = non coding strand

16

DNA Transcription:
After transcription what will the following coding strand's mRNA strand be?
3'TTAACCG5'

- AAUUGGC

17

DNA Transcription:
What is a protein?

- amino acid chain (polypeptide)

18

DNA Transcription:
Protein is coded into ___ via ____ which are a pile of nucleic acids which are arranged via complementary strands which make up genes.

- DNA via chormosmes

19

DNA Transcription:
- Genes CODE for proteins. Code??

- a certain arrangement of nucleotides give you nucleic acids so the gene is telling you that particular sequence of aa that will give you the resulting protein

20

DNA Transcription:
- Gene?

- a sequence of nucleotides that tell us the sequence of aa's for a protein

21

DNA Transcription:
- why is the sequence of nucleotides in the gene extremely important?

- because if you take the wrong genes you are not getting the correct sequence of aa's

22

DNA Transcription:
- coding strand?

- it's sequence in the gene codes for the correct sequence of amino acids

23

DNA Transcription:
- non-coding strand?

- the complementary strand to the coding strand..

24

DNA Transcription:
-RNA is synthesized on?

- a complementary DNA strand ..it needs to choose the correct one so it will be read during translating giving us the right aa's

25

DNA Transcription:
- What is the RNA sequence and what is it coming from?

- It needs to be the exact same as the coding strand this is ensured by using the non coding DNA strand as a template! So you are not actually touching the sequence of DNA that codes for the genes that give us the protein

26

What are the three Eukaryotic RNA polymerases that we discussed in class?

- RNA Poly I
- RNA Poly II
- RNA Poly III

27

Eukaryotic RNA Polymerases:
- RNA Poly I?

- rRNA - structural (ribosomal RNA which are not translated so they stay in an RNA state and are used along with ribosomes to make proteins.

28

Eukaryotic RNA Polymerases:
- RNA Poly II?

- mRNAs- informational

29

Eukaryotic RNA Polymerases:
- RNA Poly III?

- tRNA's (transfer RNA's...transfer aa's), snRNA's (splicing ...getting rid of introns) and ribosomal 5s RNA

30

Eukaryotic Nuclear RNA Polymerases.
Enzymes? (5)

1. RNA Poly I - synthesizes larger rRNAs (28S, 18S and 5.8S)
2. RNA Poly II- synthesizes mRNAs, most small nuclear RNAs( snRNAs and snoRNAs) most micro RNAs and telomerase RNA
3.RNA Poly III - small RNAs, including tRNAs, 5S rRNA and U6 snRNA
4. RNA Poly IV and V (plants only)- siRNAs