Chapter 1: Making Buildings Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1: Making Buildings Deck (47):

Corrections of mistakes following a project's completion

Punch list


When does the building environment impact initiate?

Initiating > Planning > Executing > Monitoring and Controlling > Closing > Initiating (start)


What are the concerns of building construction?

-Getting the building built safely
-Built on time
-Within budget
-To required safety standards


What are the required quality standards to consider when building?

-Sequencing of construction operations for maximum productivity
-Optimum use of building trades
-Division of work between the shop and the building site
-Convenient and safe worker access to construction operations
-Effects of weather
-Making building components fit together
-Quality testing of materials and components during construction


Buildings account for _____-_____% of the world's energy consumption and CO2 emissions.



What is the purpose of sustainability?

Building to meet the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs.
Create livable, comfortable, safe, productive environments.
Reduce/avoid depletion of energy, water, land p, and raw materials.
Prevent environmental degradation caused by facilities and infrastructure through their life cycle.


Sustainable building performance is _____ while the premium in cost and effort to design and construct such buildings in comparison is _____ or disappearing completely.

Improving; declining


What are the six fundamental principles in sustainable building design?

1. Optimize site potential
2. Optimize energy use
3. Protect and conserve water
4. Optimize building space and material use
5. Enhance indoor environmental quality (IEQ)
6. Optimize operational and maintenance practices


The most comprehensive method for describing and quantifying environmental impact associated with building materials (compares the "environmental footprint" of the material).
1. Are fossil fields, electricity, water, and other materials consumed?
2. Are solid waste, global warming gasses, and other air/water pollutants generated?

Life-cycle analysis/Cradle-to-grave analysis


Method to describe environmental impact but only extends from materials extraction to when the material leaves the factory.

Cradle-to-gate analysis


Most widely applied system for evaluating building sustainability

LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design)


LEED is a required rating system.

False - it is completely voluntary.


Aspires society to construct buildings that do not harm at all, or provide benefit, to the environment.
-What are the two ratings for this sustainability standard?

Living Building Challenge
1. "Living" certification: buildings fully meet the standard.
2. "Petal Recognition" certification: meets minimum partial requirements.


Submitted to the local government building authorities, where they are checked for conformance with zoning ordinances and building codes before a permit is issued to build.
-What are the two types?

Construction documents
1. Graphic construction drawings
2. Written specifications


A means of regulating building activity to protect public health and safety by setting minimum standards for construction quality, structural integrity, durability, livability, accessibility, and fire safety. Also considers energy conservation, health codes, and electrical/mechanical codes.

Building codes


Governs the types of activities that may take place on a given piece of land, how much of the land may be covered by buildings, how far buildings must set back from adjacent property lines, how many parking spaces must be provided, how large a total floor area may be constructed, and how tall the buildings may be.

Zoning ordinances


What are the occupancy types of building codes?

A: assembly; places of public gathering (theaters, lecture halls).
B: business
E: education
F1 and F2: factory industrial
H1 and H5: high hazard
I1-I4: institutional (hospitals, prisons, care facilities).
M: mercantile
R1-R4: residential
S1-S2: storage
U: utility and maintenance


Standardized codes, adopted and put into effect by local jurisdictions.

Model building codes

(Note: IRC: 1 and 2 family townhouses with a 3 story maximum height; IBC: everything else.)


Makes accessibility to public buildings a civil right to all Americans.

ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act)


Makes accessibility to public buildings a civil right to multifamily housing.

Fair Housing Act


What type of regulations are ADA and Fair Housing Act?

Access standards (regulate design of entrances, stairs, doorways, elevators, facilities, public areas, living spaces, etc.)


Controls the design of workplaces to minimize hazards to the health and safety of workers.

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)


An owner hires a team of architects and engineers to perform design services, and construction firms bid on the project.



One entity assumes responsibility for design and construction.



Why might design/bid/build be more difficult than design/build?

It is difficult to integrate construction expertise into the design.


Numbering system for the organization of construction materials and systems; organizes construction cost data, organize trade and technical literature, and (sometimes) systemizes notes on construction drawings.



What would be an example of MasterFormat in practice?

Specifications Group
Facility Construction Subgroup
Division 05-Metals
Section 05 50 00 Metal Fabrications
Section 05 51 33 Metal Ladders
Section 05 51 33.13 Vertical Metal Ladders


Participates in the project prior to the onset of construction, introducing construction expertise during the design stage. Also oversees design and construction services provided by both entities.

Construction Manager


An owner contracts with a single entity that does not only design and construction services, but financing the project as well.

Turnkey construction


The owner, architects and contractor are all joint members.

Single-purpose entity


The general contractor or other construction entity if paid a fixed $ amount to complete the construction of a project regardless of that entity's actual costs to perform the work.

Fixed-fee/lump-sum compensation


Owner agrees to pay the construction entity for the actual costs of construction plus an additional amount to account for overhead and profit.

Cost plus a fee compensation


The maximum fee an owner is required to pay

Guaranteed maximum price (GMAX or GMP)


Construction where each major phase is completed before the next begins, and construction does not start until all the design work is complete.

Sequential construction


Construction to reduce time required to complete a project by overlapping design and construction.

Phased construction/fast track construction


Horizontal bars representing the duration of various tasks or groups of tasks of the project. (Ex: primavera software for scheduling)

Gantt chart/bar chart


How long you can delay a lease before it puts you behind schedule



A simplified model code addressing the construction of detached 1- and 2-family homes and townhouses of limited size.

International Residence Code (IRC)


Oversees construction, controls the project site, manages trades and suppliers, and coordinates communications between construction team and owner. Requires submit task from subcontractors (ex: carpet samples).

General Contractor


Key parties share mutual responsibility, decision-making, and financial risk for reward.

Integrated project delivery (IPD)


Mutually binds parties contracted under separate agreements

Joining agreements


Methods which attempt to:
-Reduce complexity
-Eliminate wasteful activities
-Structure supply of materials and production methods
-Decentralize information and decision making

Lean construction


3D modeling

Building information modeling (BIM)


2D modeling

Computer-aided design (CAD)


Defines building role, level of development at various stages, identifies sources of data to be contributed, assigns managing responsibilities, establishes protocol and defines technical and project infrastructure required to support these activities.

BIM execution plan


Sequence of the least time to complete a project (no floats).

Critical path


What are the 5 IBC construction types, what materials are they made of, and what is their fire resistance?

Type I: (most resistant) concrete, steel, and masonry, noncombustible only, 2-3 hr.
Type II: (same as Type I, but fire resistance is 0-1 hr).
Type III: wood, with noncombustible exterior walls, 0-1 hr.
Type IV: wood, with combustible interior walls, Heavy Timber (HT).
Type V: (least resistant) fully combustible materials, 0-1 hr.