Chapter 2: Foundations and Sitework Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2: Foundations and Sitework Deck (61):
1

What are the different loads on a foundation?

Live load: people, furniture (changes over time)
Dead load: the building itself (permanent/fixed)
Wind load: wind pressure

2

Foundations must be economically and technically _____; it must not have adverse effects on the _____ structures.

Feasible; surrounding

4

How do you classify earth materials?

1. Particle size
2. Moisture content
3. Presence of organic content

5

May cause damages to finishes, cladding and other components where the building becomes distorted.

Differential settlement

9

A dense, continuous mass of mineral materials that can be removed only by drilling, fracturing, or blasting. Strongest, most stable, and strength varies with mineral content and physical content.

Consolidated rock or bedrock

10

Any earth material that is particulate

Soil

11

Greater than 12 inches in diameter, must be picked up with two hands

Boulders

12

Smaller than boulders, but greater than 3 inches in diameter, and can be picked up with one hand.

Cobbles

13

Coarse-grained soils

Gravels and sands

14

Spherical, less than 0.0029 inches, and is too small to be seen by the naked eye.

Silt

15

Too small to be seen by the naked eye, smaller than silt, less than 0.0029 inches in diameter.

Clay

16

Fine-trained soils

Silts and clay

17

3 inches - 0.187 inches in diameter

Gravel

18

0.187 inches - 0.003 inches, too small to be lifted individually

Sand

19

Not suitable for the support of building foundations

Organic soils (peat, topsoil)

20

Coarse-trained soils consist of relatively large mineral particles with _____ or _____ attractive or repulsive forces acting between them. They are not very affected by moisture content.

Little; no

21

How are both coarse and fine-grained soils used for building construction?

Coarse-grained soils are stronger, while fine-grained soils fill in the gaps.

22

Soils, when relying primarily on internal friction for strength.

Frictional/cohesionless

23

Smaller-grained soils may be subject to a wide array of _____ forces.

Interparticle

24

Spaces between the particles

Soil pores

25

When water-saturated sands or silts lose virtually all of their strength and behave as a liquid when subjected to sudden, large changes in load, such as an earthquake.

Soil liquefaction

26

Draining water away from foundations and substructures or from under slabs on grades and pavements.

Free draining

27

Buildings will withstand better with highly-_____ soil.

Cohesive

28

Material which is moldable when moist

Plastic

29

Ability to sustain a higher moisture content before arriving at a flowable consistency

Liquid limit

30

Range of particle sizes

Gradation

31

Broad range of particle sizes

Well-graded

32

Limited range of particle sizes, more void space and free draining

Poorly graded or "well sorted"

33

Limited, narrow range of particle sizes

Uniformly graded

34

Particle size distribution

Sorting

35

Clay properties vary with moisture content and _____ composition. Some are highly expansive when wetted, some are virtually impervious to water, and some are subject to consolidation or gradual compression _____ _____.

Mineral; over time

36

Generally, a larger particle size creates a _____ soil.

Stronger

37

For raising the grade

General purpos fill

38

Geotechnical reports describe _____ and their properties.

Soils

39

Complex method to construct a steel-reinforced concrete wall many stories below the surface

Slurry wall

40

Viscous mixture of water and bentonite clay

Slurry

41

Beams that span across the face of the sheeting

Walers

44

When crosslot bracing cannot be used because the excavation is too wide; bearing against temporary footings

Rakers

45

Removal of water from the excavation or surrounding soil; removal from sumps.

Dewatering

46

Pit where water accumulates; low points in excavation or surrounding soil

Sumps

47

Depresses the water table

Well points

48

Soils directly below the building substructure are _____ and _____.

Weak; unstable

49

Used for small building design of foundations where soil analysis is unnecessary.

Allowable foundation pressures/allowable soil pressures

50

When clay with high moisture content is put under continuous pressure, the water is pressed out of it causing a gradual reduction in soil volume.

Consolidation

51

The water content at which the soil transitions from solid to plastic.

Plastic limit

52

A _____ _____ may include recommendations for allowing bearing walls for various soil strata, appropriate foundation types, estimated rates of foundation settlement, soil drainage, foundation waterproofing, and other relevant information.

Geotechnical report

53

Trees and plants, stumps, large roots, and other surface materials are removed with heavy machinery.

Grubbing and cleaning

54

_____ is necessary for basement construction, to reach undistributed, adequately firm soil for shallow footings, for trenches for buried utilities, and to remove native soils that are contaminated or too weak or unstable to build over.

Excavation

55

Sloped back; less expensive than sheeted excavation, requires a site without property lines, adjacent structures, or other limits on excavation.

Benched

56

Angle low enough that the soil will not slide back into the hole; can be steep for cohesive soils such as stiff clays or shallower for frictional soils such as sand and gravel.

Maximum allowable slope/angle of repose

57

Supports the sides of an excavation and prevent collapse

Shoring

58

Steel columns driven vertically into the earth at close intervals around an excavation site. Braced by rakers, followed by waterproofing and cast in place concrete wall foundation.

H-piles/soldier beams

59

Vertical sheets of various materials are aligned tightly against one another and driven (not drilled) into the earth to form a solid wall (most common: steel; but wood, aluminum, PVC plastic, composite polymers, or precast concrete can be used)

Sheet piling/sheeting

60

Driven into earth

Piles

61

Building g superstructure temporarily supported on cribbing while new foundation is built.

Underpinning

62

Allows ground water to flow downward where it is collected by drain piping.

Drainage mat

63

Draws water away from the substructure

Drain piping

64

A moisture-resistant cement plaster or asphalt compound applied to basement walls where groundwater conditions are mild or waterproofing requirements are not critical.

Dampproofing

65

Resists the passage of water even under more demanding conditions of hydrostatic pressure. It is more costly, and is used where groundwater conditions are severe or the need to protect subgrade space from moisture is critical.

Waterproofing

66

Used instead of bracing; holes are drilled at intervals through the shoring and steel cables or rods are inserted, grouted in place, stretched tight, and fastened to the walers. Leave the excavation unencumbered.

Tiebacks

68

Temporary steel wide-flame columns, which are driven into the earth at points where braces will cross

Crosslot bracing