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Flashcards in chapter 1 model organisms Deck (30):
1

Model organisms are

experimental models

2

The fundamental properties of all cells have been conserved during evolution.
Thus, basic cell biology principles learned from experiments on one type of cell are generally

applicable to other cells

3

A ___ is a simplified system that is easy to use and work with, to study complex processes.

model

4

3 things needed to be a model

Practical for growing in a lab, not hard to feed and care for
– Short reproduction time makes genetic studies feasible
– Easily manipulated

5

One of the most well-studied organisms in all
biology is ___

Initial understanding of DNA replication, the
genetic code, gene expression, and protein
synthesis derive from studies of ___

E. Coli

6

E. Coli's Genome is small & easy to alter, contains

4.6 million
nucleotides containing ~4300 genes

7

Routinely used for expressing genes and
producing proteins belonging to other
organisms …like Humulin (human insulin)

E. Coli

8

yeast is a

unicellular eukaryote

9

___ are among the simplest
eukaryotic organisms.
Highly valuable tool in cell &
molecular biology research.
• Easy to manipulate; grow quickly;
most are nonpathogenic.
• Unicellular; can reproduce by
dividing asexually, or by mating.

Yeasts

10

Has contributed a lot to our
understanding of cancer & the
cell cycle

yeasts

11

S. Cerevisiae (baker’s yeast):
Genome contains

12 million
nucleotides of DNA with ~6000
genes

12

Invertebrates:

Nematodes (Roundworms,
C. elegans)

13

_____one of the simplest multicellular organisms; widely used for studying the processes of animal development and cell specialization/differentiation.

Caenorhabditis elegans:

14

• Genetic studies of ____have identified many mutations responsible for developmental abnormalities.
• This leads identification of genes that control development and differentiation in other animals and sometimes even plants.

C. elegans

15

c. elegans genome contains

~100million nucleotides with 19,000 genes, which is
smaller and more manageable than most animals. They also have a set number of cells.

16

______is a species of fly that has been studied
extensively for years.
• Crucial model organism in
developmental biology and
neurobiology.
Short reproductive cycle (2 weeks)
makes it very useful for genetic
experiments.
• Many fundamental concepts in
genetics & development were
derived from studies of this

Drosophila melanogaster

17

drophilia genome contains

Genome =180 million nucleotides,
with 14000 genes.

18

Plant Model:
• Small, easily cultivated member
of the mustard family.
Studies of ____have led
to the identification of genes
involved in plant development,
such as the development of
flowers.
• Has allowed us to see
similarities and differences in
the mechanisms controlling
plant vs. animal development.

Arabidopsis thaliana

19

arabidopsis thaliana genome contains

Genome =125 million
nucleotides, with 26,000 genes.

20

The African clawed frog ___ is an
important model for studies of early
vertebrate development and for the
events of the cell cycle.

Produces large(~1mm) eggs,
facilitating laboratory study and
biochemical analysis
– Led to insights into molecular
mechanisms controlling early
development, cell division, and
the cell cycle.

Xenopus

21

Xenopus genone contains

– Genome =1.7 billion nucleotides,
with ~21,000 genes.

22

Xenopus

X. laevis and X. tropicalis

23

are used for developmental and genetic studies.
Embryos develop outside of the
mother and are transparent, so early
stages of development can be easily
observed.
– Have many of the same genes as
humans.
– Can be used to model human
medical conditions such as fetal
alcohol syndrome.

Zebrafish (D. rario

24

zebrafish sci name

D. rario

25

zebrafish genone contains

Genome is 1.7 billion nucleotides,
with ~24,000 genes.

26

Mammals:
• The mouse is the most common mammal model; they are the easiest to
house and feed and genetically manipulate.
• Almost every aspect of mouse biology mirrors that of other mammals,
including humans.
Genetically altered mice are regularly used to study
the functions of a particular gene in the context of the
whole mammalian organism.

Mouse (M. Musculus)

27

____are the most
complex animals, and the most
difficult to study in cell and
molecular biology.
• One approach is to use isolated
cells from the organism of
interest, grown in the lab in
dishes or flasks.

Vertebrates

28

allow us to
study all sorts of cellular
processes – membrane transport
(ch12), gene expression (ch7-8),
protein sorting/processing (ch15),
cell signaling (ch16) cell division
(ch18) & cell specialization (ch20).

Cultured cell lines

29

HeLa cells –
The HeLa cell line was established in 1951
from a biopsy of a cervical tumor taken
from _____, who died from
the cancer at age 31.
• The cells were taken without the
knowledge or permission of her or her
family, and they became the first human
cells to grow well in a lab. Hundreds of
thousands of labs across the world use
HeLa cells

Ms. Henrietta Lacks

30

______ cells have contributed to the
development of a polio vaccine,
development of cancer treatments &
influenza vaccines, and countless other
advances.

HeLa cells