Flashcards in chapter 1 model organisms Deck (30):
Model organisms are
The fundamental properties of all cells have been conserved during evolution.
Thus, basic cell biology principles learned from experiments on one type of cell are generally
applicable to other cells
A ___ is a simplified system that is easy to use and work with, to study complex processes.
3 things needed to be a model
Practical for growing in a lab, not hard to feed and care for
– Short reproduction time makes genetic studies feasible
– Easily manipulated
One of the most well-studied organisms in all
biology is ___
Initial understanding of DNA replication, the
genetic code, gene expression, and protein
synthesis derive from studies of ___
E. Coli's Genome is small & easy to alter, contains
nucleotides containing ~4300 genes
Routinely used for expressing genes and
producing proteins belonging to other
organisms …like Humulin (human insulin)
yeast is a
___ are among the simplest
Highly valuable tool in cell &
molecular biology research.
• Easy to manipulate; grow quickly;
most are nonpathogenic.
• Unicellular; can reproduce by
dividing asexually, or by mating.
Has contributed a lot to our
understanding of cancer & the
S. Cerevisiae (baker’s yeast):
nucleotides of DNA with ~6000
_____one of the simplest multicellular organisms; widely used for studying the processes of animal development and cell specialization/differentiation.
• Genetic studies of ____have identified many mutations responsible for developmental abnormalities.
• This leads identification of genes that control development and differentiation in other animals and sometimes even plants.
c. elegans genome contains
~100million nucleotides with 19,000 genes, which is
smaller and more manageable than most animals. They also have a set number of cells.
______is a species of fly that has been studied
extensively for years.
• Crucial model organism in
developmental biology and
Short reproductive cycle (2 weeks)
makes it very useful for genetic
• Many fundamental concepts in
genetics & development were
derived from studies of this
drophilia genome contains
Genome =180 million nucleotides,
with 14000 genes.
• Small, easily cultivated member
of the mustard family.
Studies of ____have led
to the identification of genes
involved in plant development,
such as the development of
• Has allowed us to see
similarities and differences in
the mechanisms controlling
plant vs. animal development.
arabidopsis thaliana genome contains
Genome =125 million
nucleotides, with 26,000 genes.
The African clawed frog ___ is an
important model for studies of early
vertebrate development and for the
events of the cell cycle.
Produces large(~1mm) eggs,
facilitating laboratory study and
– Led to insights into molecular
mechanisms controlling early
development, cell division, and
the cell cycle.
Xenopus genone contains
– Genome =1.7 billion nucleotides,
with ~21,000 genes.
X. laevis and X. tropicalis
are used for developmental and genetic studies.
Embryos develop outside of the
mother and are transparent, so early
stages of development can be easily
– Have many of the same genes as
– Can be used to model human
medical conditions such as fetal
Zebrafish (D. rario
zebrafish sci name
zebrafish genone contains
Genome is 1.7 billion nucleotides,
with ~24,000 genes.
• The mouse is the most common mammal model; they are the easiest to
house and feed and genetically manipulate.
• Almost every aspect of mouse biology mirrors that of other mammals,
Genetically altered mice are regularly used to study
the functions of a particular gene in the context of the
whole mammalian organism.
Mouse (M. Musculus)
____are the most
complex animals, and the most
difficult to study in cell and
• One approach is to use isolated
cells from the organism of
interest, grown in the lab in
dishes or flasks.
allow us to
study all sorts of cellular
processes – membrane transport
(ch12), gene expression (ch7-8),
protein sorting/processing (ch15),
cell signaling (ch16) cell division
(ch18) & cell specialization (ch20).
Cultured cell lines
HeLa cells –
The HeLa cell line was established in 1951
from a biopsy of a cervical tumor taken
from _____, who died from
the cancer at age 31.
• The cells were taken without the
knowledge or permission of her or her
family, and they became the first human
cells to grow well in a lab. Hundreds of
thousands of labs across the world use
Ms. Henrietta Lacks