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Flashcards in Pre-reqs central dogma notes Deck (23):
1

All the DNA for a particular cell or organism

Genome

2

The genome is made up of ___large pieces of DNA complexed with proteins.

chromosomes

3

large pieces of DNA complexed with proteins.

chromosomes

4

Chromosomes are divided into genes which are

segments of DNA.

5

Genes encode proteins – in other words genes what

carry the information telling what amino acids will go in the protein

6

RNA synthesis: a gene’s DNA sequence is used to make a molecule of RNA

transcription

7

Protein synthesis; RNA is used to manufacture a polypeptide, which folds into a protein

translation

8

___contains information about building proteins – which amino acids and in what order

DNA

9

___ makes RNA, to copy the information
___ participates in carrying out translation
_____makes proteins

transcription
rna
translation

10

there is a __ for each gene
Each ___ nucleotide sequence matches up with the sequence of the gene it was made from.
Carries information from DNA to the ribosome.
This information will tell the cell which amino acids to use.

mRNA

11

most RNA is this type
Together with specialized proteins, it makes up the ribosome
Certain ___ are ribozymes – they join together the amino acids during synthesis of the polypeptide.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

12

‘adaptor’ molecules
There are 20 different ___, one for each amino acid – each ____brings one of the amino acids to the ribosome.
Each ___ matches up to one codon along the mRNA template

Transfer RNA (tRNA) –

13

DNA & RNA are made of ____
Proteins are made of ___

nucleotides
amino acids

14

How does a cell use RNA (a bunch of nucleotides) to specify which amino acids will go into a protein?…

Answer: the genetic code

15

The ____ is the connection between RNA nucleotides & the amino acids used to synthesize protein.
mRNA is divided into groups of 3 nucleotides called ____

genetic code
codons

16

One RNA codon =
Each codon specifies

3 nucleotides
one amino acid.

17

what happens after translation?

Polypeptide folds into a 3D shape to become a protein (ch.2).
Correct folding is crucial for proteins to function!
Wrong shape = altered function or no function

18

___are changes in the nucleotide sequence of DNA.

Mutations

19

Mutations can be caused by sunlight, chemicals, pollution, X-Rays, nuclear radiation, etc.
How does this affect organisms?

Some mutations are harmful
Some have no effect on the organism
Some are beneficial

20

__ genes help set up the body during development

HOX-useful mutation
Mutations in canine HOX genes lead to variety in body shapes and styles

21

___genes are involved in setting up the throat and larynx.

FOX-useful mutation
Mutations in early human ancestors’ FOX genes allowed for the development of speech (talking) and language.

22

Viruses are made of only

nucleic acid & proteins.

23

Viruses are

parasites