Flashcards in Pre-reqs central dogma notes Deck (23):
All the DNA for a particular cell or organism
The genome is made up of ___large pieces of DNA complexed with proteins.
large pieces of DNA complexed with proteins.
Chromosomes are divided into genes which are
segments of DNA.
Genes encode proteins – in other words genes what
carry the information telling what amino acids will go in the protein
RNA synthesis: a gene’s DNA sequence is used to make a molecule of RNA
Protein synthesis; RNA is used to manufacture a polypeptide, which folds into a protein
___contains information about building proteins – which amino acids and in what order
___ makes RNA, to copy the information
___ participates in carrying out translation
there is a __ for each gene
Each ___ nucleotide sequence matches up with the sequence of the gene it was made from.
Carries information from DNA to the ribosome.
This information will tell the cell which amino acids to use.
most RNA is this type
Together with specialized proteins, it makes up the ribosome
Certain ___ are ribozymes – they join together the amino acids during synthesis of the polypeptide.
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
There are 20 different ___, one for each amino acid – each ____brings one of the amino acids to the ribosome.
Each ___ matches up to one codon along the mRNA template
Transfer RNA (tRNA) –
DNA & RNA are made of ____
Proteins are made of ___
How does a cell use RNA (a bunch of nucleotides) to specify which amino acids will go into a protein?…
Answer: the genetic code
The ____ is the connection between RNA nucleotides & the amino acids used to synthesize protein.
mRNA is divided into groups of 3 nucleotides called ____
One RNA codon =
Each codon specifies
one amino acid.
what happens after translation?
Polypeptide folds into a 3D shape to become a protein (ch.2).
Correct folding is crucial for proteins to function!
Wrong shape = altered function or no function
___are changes in the nucleotide sequence of DNA.
Mutations can be caused by sunlight, chemicals, pollution, X-Rays, nuclear radiation, etc.
How does this affect organisms?
Some mutations are harmful
Some have no effect on the organism
Some are beneficial
__ genes help set up the body during development
Mutations in canine HOX genes lead to variety in body shapes and styles
___genes are involved in setting up the throat and larynx.
Mutations in early human ancestors’ FOX genes allowed for the development of speech (talking) and language.
Viruses are made of only
nucleic acid & proteins.