Flashcards in Chapter 1 pp 2 Deck (20):
___ were the first eukaryotes to evolve, and gave rise to present-day plants, animals and fungi.
Multicellularity began to occur in some groups of protists ~1-2 bya.
Cells that divided without separating
– Evolution of cell-cell adhesion (ch20)
present day green algae can be unicellular or multicellular; the difference is just a few
a unicellular protists expresses
Express few or no adhesion proteins, ECM proteins
a multicellular protists expresses
Express many adhesion proteins ECM proteins
Division of labor among cells leads to
different cell types develop in the same multicellular organism.
Differentiated cell types vary greatly in shape, size, structure. They each become specialized to
carry out a particular function
*Stem cells are unique because they do not
differentiate – they can
develop into many cell types
Some viruses have RNA; others have DNA (but
none have both).
some can use their RNA to synthesize a DNA copy of
their genes in infected cells, which becomes integrated into the host cell genome
their DNA is used immediately by the cell for rapid
transcription and translation of viral genes.
Some viruses, such as human papilloma virus HPV, do not
immediately kill the cells they infect. Instead they force the cell to divide
endlessly causes warts (and can ultimately cause cancer).
cancer such as cervical, oral, and anal
how does hpv attack?
Changes gene expression in cells
Alters cellular processes (cells divide more)
Tumors grow and spread
Cytology is the
study of cell structure
Until microscopes were invented, nobody knew cells existed at all! Cells were “discovered” using the first
light microscopes in the 1600’s.
200 years of microscope studies led to the
development of ____ in the
The ____ microscope can be used to provide
information about the activity of cells and to look at
very small structures
the light microscope provides____ which provides information about the activity of cells and to
look at very small structures such as nanostructures.