Chapter 1 pp 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1 pp 2 Deck (20):
1

___ were the first eukaryotes to evolve, and gave rise to present-day plants, animals and fungi.

protists

2

Multicellularity began to occur in some groups of protists ~1-2 bya.

Cells that divided without separating
– Evolution of cell-cell adhesion (ch20)

3

present day green algae can be unicellular or multicellular; the difference is just a few

genes

4

a unicellular protists expresses

Express few or no adhesion proteins, ECM proteins

5

a multicellular protists expresses

Express many adhesion proteins ECM proteins

6

Division of labor among cells leads to

different cell types develop in the same multicellular organism.

7

Differentiated cell types vary greatly in shape, size, structure. They each become specialized to

carry out a particular function

8

*Stem cells are unique because they do not

differentiate – they can
develop into many cell types

9

Some viruses have RNA; others have DNA (but

none have both).

10

some can use their RNA to synthesize a DNA copy of
their genes in infected cells, which becomes integrated into the host cell genome

RNA viruses

11

their DNA is used immediately by the cell for rapid
transcription and translation of viral genes.

DNA viruses

12

Some viruses, such as human papilloma virus HPV, do not

immediately kill the cells they infect. Instead they force the cell to divide
endlessly  causes warts (and can ultimately cause cancer).

13

HPV causes

cancer such as cervical, oral, and anal

14

how does hpv attack?

Virus infection
Changes gene expression in cells
Alters cellular processes (cells divide more)
Tumors grow and spread

15

Cytology is the

study of cell structure

16

Until microscopes were invented, nobody knew cells existed at all! Cells were “discovered” using the first

light microscopes in the 1600’s.

17

200 years of microscope studies led to the
development of ____ in the
1860’s:

Cell Theory

18

The ____ microscope can be used to provide
information about the activity of cells and to look at
very small structures

light microscope

19

the light microscope provides____ which provides information about the activity of cells and to
look at very small structures such as nanostructures.

molecular imaging

20

the light microscope provides ____which is used to identify and study substances in cells such as
peptides, RNA and small molecules

cellular imaging