Flashcards in Chapter 1: Overview Deck (33)
the sum of the proteins produced at a given time in a cell
when two wild type alleles are common
The DNA found in all the chromosomes of an organism
How many chromosomes in a human?
23 pairs, 46 total.
What are the four main categories of molecules that make up cells? Of these which can form macromolecules?
Nucleic acids proteins carbohydrates and lipids, the first three can form macromolecules
Molecules composed of many repeating units of smaller building blocks
What kind of molecules make up the macromolecule DNA ?
A segment of DNA that produces a functional product
The characteristics of an organism
What is the main function of the genetic code?
Cold for the production of cellular proteins in the correct cell, at the proper time, and in suitable amounts
What element do all four nucleotides contain?
Nitrogen (obviously aside from carbon and hydrogen)
Nitrogen base A
Nitrogen base T
Nitrogen base G
Nitrogen base C
The process of using a gene sequence to affect the characteristics of cells and organisms
Describe the process of gene expression
Transcription: the DNA sequence within a gene is copied into a nucleotide sequence of ribonucleic acid, most RNA codes for polypeptides, known as mRNA.
Translation: the sequence of nucleotides transcribed in an mRNA must be translated into the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide, at this point known as a primary protien. The polypeptide chain folds into either a tertiary or quaternary protein, which then acts as a functional unit.
What determines the function of a protein ?
Traits that affect the appearance of an organism
Traits that affect the ability of an organism to function
Traits that affect the way an organism responds to its environment
What four levels of biological organisation does genetics span? Describe examples of each
Molecular: gene transcription and translation
Cellular: translated protein affects the function of the cell
Organism: traits of an organism are determined by the characteristics of its cells
Population: A group of organisms that maintain a distinctive set of characteristics is termed a species, populations that have beneficial traits will have greater reproductive success, and more genes will exist to continue the process at the cellular level
Differences in inherited traits among individuals within a population
Contrasting forms within a single species
Norm of reaction
Effects of environmental variation on an individual's traits
To possess two copies of each chromosome, one from each parent
What are two copies of analogous chromosomes in a diploid organism called?
Homologs of each other
In humans, diploid cells containing 46 chromosomes that are not involved in sexual reproduction
Sperm and egg cells