Chapter 1: Overview Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1: Overview Deck (33)
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1

proteome

the sum of the proteins produced at a given time in a cell

2

genetic polymorphism

when two wild type alleles are common

3

genome

The DNA found in all the chromosomes of an organism

4

How many chromosomes in a human?

23 pairs, 46 total.

5

What are the four main categories of molecules that make up cells? Of these which can form macromolecules?

Nucleic acids proteins carbohydrates and lipids, the first three can form macromolecules

6

Macromolecules

Molecules composed of many repeating units of smaller building blocks

7

What kind of molecules make up the macromolecule DNA ?

Nucleotides

8

Gene

A segment of DNA that produces a functional product

9

Traits

The characteristics of an organism

10

What is the main function of the genetic code?

Cold for the production of cellular proteins in the correct cell, at the proper time, and in suitable amounts

11

What element do all four nucleotides contain?

Nitrogen (obviously aside from carbon and hydrogen)

12

Nitrogen base A

Adenine

13

Nitrogen base T

Thymine

14

Nitrogen base G

Guanine

15

Nitrogen base C

Cytosine

16

Gene expression

The process of using a gene sequence to affect the characteristics of cells and organisms

17

Describe the process of gene expression

Transcription: the DNA sequence within a gene is copied into a nucleotide sequence of ribonucleic acid, most RNA codes for polypeptides, known as mRNA.
Translation: the sequence of nucleotides transcribed in an mRNA must be translated into the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide, at this point known as a primary protien. The polypeptide chain folds into either a tertiary or quaternary protein, which then acts as a functional unit.

18

What determines the function of a protein ?

Its structure

19

Morphological traits

Traits that affect the appearance of an organism

20

Physiological trait

Traits that affect the ability of an organism to function

21

Behavioural trait

Traits that affect the way an organism responds to its environment

22

What four levels of biological organisation does genetics span? Describe examples of each

Molecular: gene transcription and translation
Cellular: translated protein affects the function of the cell
Organism: traits of an organism are determined by the characteristics of its cells
Population: A group of organisms that maintain a distinctive set of characteristics is termed a species, populations that have beneficial traits will have greater reproductive success, and more genes will exist to continue the process at the cellular level

23

Genetic variation

Differences in inherited traits among individuals within a population

24

Morph

Contrasting forms within a single species

25

Norm of reaction

Effects of environmental variation on an individual's traits

26

Diploid

To possess two copies of each chromosome, one from each parent

27

What are two copies of analogous chromosomes in a diploid organism called?

Homologs of each other

28

Somatic cells

In humans, diploid cells containing 46 chromosomes that are not involved in sexual reproduction

29

Gametes

Sperm and egg cells

30

Are gametes deployed or haploid?

Haploid