Chapter 2: Mendelian Inheritance and Probability Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2: Mendelian Inheritance and Probability Deck (38)
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1

pangenesis

Hippocrates suggestion that “seeds” are produced by all parts of the body, which are then collected and transmitted to the offspring at the time of conception, causing certain traits of the offspring to resemble those of the parents. (400BCE)

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What is Hippocrates concept of inheritance called?

pangenesis

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blending inheritance

the view that the factors that dictate hereditary traits can blend together from generation to generation. Refuted by Mendel.

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Who performed the first systematic study of genetic crosses?

Kölreuter, in experiments with tobacco from 1761 to 1766, concluded that both parents make equal genetic contributions to their offspring, consistent with blending inheritance: the factors that dictate hereditary traits can blend together from generation to generation. Refuted by Mendel.

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What did Kölreuter conclude from his experiments?

Kölreuter, in experiments with tobacco from 1761 to 1766, concluded that both parents make equal genetic contributions to their offspring, consistent with blending inheritance: the factors that dictate hereditary traits can blend together from generation to generation. Refuted by Mendel.

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Gregor Johann Mendel

1822-1884: Austrian monk botanist who performed crosses on peas in 1856, considered the father of genetics

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hybridisation experiment

two distinct individuals with different characteristics are mated (crossed), to each other, the offspring are referred to as hybrids.

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cross

mating two distinct individuals with different characteristics

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hybrids

the offspring of a cross (a mating between two distinct individuals with different characteristics)

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self-fertilisation

pollen and egg are derived from the same plant

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cross-fertilisation

pollen and egg are derived from two different plants

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character

one of the general characteristics of an organism, traits (or variants) describe specific properties of a character

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trait

traits (or variants) describe specific properties of a character (one of the general characteristics of an organism)

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variant

variants (or traits) describe specific properties of a character (one of the general characteristics of an organism)

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strain

a strain (or true-breeding line) produces a trait (or traits) that do not vary in appearance from generation to generation, it is homozygous for that trait

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true-breeding line

a true-breeding line (or strain) produces a trait (or traits) that do not vary in appearance from generation to generation, it is homozygous for that trait

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monohybrid cross

A monohybrid cross is a mating between individuals who have different alleles at one genetic locus of interest. The character(s) being studied in a monohybrid cross are governed by two alleles for a single locus.
To carry out such a cross, each parent is chosen to be homozygous or true breeding for a given trait (locus). When a cross satisfies the conditions for a monohybrid cross, it is usually detected by a characteristic distribution of second-generation (F2) offspring that is sometimes called the monohybrid ratio.

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single-factor cross

A monohybrid cross (or single factor cross) is a mating between individuals who have different alleles at one genetic locus of interest. The character(s) being studied in a monohybrid cross are governed by two alleles for a single locus.
To carry out such a cross, each parent is chosen to be homozygous or true breeding for a given trait (locus). When a cross satisfies the conditions for a monohybrid cross, it is usually detected by a characteristic distribution of second-generation (F2) offspring that is sometimes called the monohybrid ratio.

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empirical approach

Empirical research is a way of gaining knowledge by means of direct and indirect observation or experience. Empirical evidence (the record of one's direct observations or experiences) can be analyzed quantitatively or qualitatively. Through quantifying the evidence or making sense of it in qualitative form, a researcher can answer empirical questions, which should be clearly defined and answerable with the evidence collected (usually called data).

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P generation

The parental generation, the initial generation that is crossed

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F1 generation

The first filial generation, the initial offspring of a cross

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F2 generation

The second filial generation, the offspring of the F1 generation

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Particulate theory of inheritance

The genes that govern traits are inherited as discrete units that remain unchanged as they are passed from parent offspring, Mendell called them factors, we now call them genes

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Gene

A unit of heredity that may influence the outcome of an organism's traits

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Allele

Different versions of the same gene

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Mendel's law of segregation

Two copies of a gene segregate (or separate) from each other during transmission from parent to offspring

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Homozygous

An individual possessing two copies (alleles) of a gene

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Genotype

The genetic composition of an individual

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Phenotype

The observable characteristics of an organism

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Heterozygous

An individual caring to different copies of alleles