Flashcards in Chapter 1: Peopling Of The World Deck (54):
the period of time before writing was invented
a person who studies how people lived in the past
an object made by human beings
the study of the origins and development of people and their societies
Combination of ideas, objects, and patterns of behavior that result from human social interaction
the study of people and cultures through their material remains
Anthropologist who discovered the remains of a Homo habilis and Homo erectus at Olduvai in 1960
Anthropologist who pioneered the investigation of human origins in East Africa. In excavations at Olduvai Gorge, he and his wife discovered the remains of early hominids, including Australopithecus and their implements in 1959.
a gorge in northern Tanzania, 30 miles (48 km) long and up to 300 feet (90 m) deep. The exposed strata contain numerous fossils (esp. hominids) spanning the full range of the Pleistocene period.
the skills and tools people use to meet their basic needs
paleoanthropologist who found the woman that shook up our family tree. In 1974, he discovered a 3.2 million year old fossil of a female skeleton in Ethiopia that would forever change our understanding of human origins. Dubbed Australopithecus afarensis, she became known to the world as Lucy. In the years since, he and his colleagues have unearthed a total of 363 specimens of Australopithecus afarensis that span 400,000 years.
"southern ape-men"; earliest human-like creatures, three to four million years ago
more advanced human form, 1.8 million years ago, made use of larger and more varied tools
"handy-human" earliest tool-making hominid
"wise humans" as early as 250,000 years ago
Homo sapiens, in Germany, relied on a variety of stone tools and first early people to bury their dead
"wise, wise humans" 100,000 years ago, first anatomically modern humans
Homo sapiens sapiens
the period ending in 12,000 BCE of human history when humans used simple stone tools, food gatherers
Old Stone Age (Paleolithic Period)
the period from 10,000 to 7000 BCE, characterized by a gradual transition from a food gathering/hunting economy to a food producing economy
the period between 8000 and 5000 BCE; period in which adaption of sedentary agriculture occurred; domestication of plants and animals was accomplished
New Stone Age (Neolithic Period)
cattle and sheep herding societies normally found on the fringes of civilized societies; commonly referred to as "barbarian" by civilized societies
Means of obtaining subsidence by humans before the mastery of sedentary agriculture; normally typical of band social organization
Hunting and Gathering
the belief that spirits and forces live within animals, objects or dreams
The shift from hunting animals and gathering plants for sustenance to producing food by systematic agriculture that occur gradually between 10,000 and 4000 B.C.E.
Agricultural (Neolithic) Revolution
to tame animals and adapt crops so they are best suited to use by humans
Early urban culture based on sedentary agriculture located in modern southern Turkey, larger in population than Jericho, had greater degree of social stratification
Early walled urban culture based on sedentary agriculture located in modern Israel-occupied West Bank near Jordan river
an amount that is more than needed, excess
undeveloped economic systems that rely on custom and tradition
Societies with reliance on sedentary agriculture, ability to produce food surpluses and existence of non-farming elites, along with merchant and manufacturing groups
sparse, dry, treeless grassland
having only one god, the doctrine or belief that there is only one god
having many gods, belief in the worship of more than one god
a skilled craftsmen
a simple drawing that looks like the object it represents
in ancient civilizations, a person specially trained to read, write and keep records
the spread of idea, customs, and technologies from one people to another
a political unit that includes a city and its surrounding lands and villages
a group of states or territories controlled by one ruler
dating method up to 50,000 years
dating method up to 200,000 years
why were paleothic men and women roughly equal?
they shared responsibility of finding food and both made important decisions that affected the group
what did paleothic people eat mostly?
hunted game and gathered nuts, berries, fruits, and wild grains
the neolithic revolution was a change from what to what
hunting and gathering to systematic agriculture
systematic agriculture gave rise to what?
what new metal was made, how was it made, and what was this new age called?
bronze, made from copper and tin, bronze age
where were the first humans developed?
why was fire important?
it could be used for cooking, heat, light, and protection
what group had the first spoken language?
what is the missing link?
bones between neanderthals and humans
what group developed into humans?
describe the Cro-Magnons
bodies just like modern people; worked with one another in planning large-scale hunts of animals; fossil record is sketchy