Chapter 1: Peopling Of The World Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1: Peopling Of The World Deck (54):
1

the period of time before writing was invented

prehistory

2

a person who studies how people lived in the past

historian

3

an object made by human beings

artifact

4

the study of the origins and development of people and their societies

anthropology

5

Combination of ideas, objects, and patterns of behavior that result from human social interaction

Culture

6

the study of people and cultures through their material remains

Archaeology

7

Anthropologist who discovered the remains of a Homo habilis and Homo erectus at Olduvai in 1960

Mary Leakey

8

Anthropologist who pioneered the investigation of human origins in East Africa. In excavations at Olduvai Gorge, he and his wife discovered the remains of early hominids, including Australopithecus and their implements in 1959.

Louis Leakey

9

a gorge in northern Tanzania, 30 miles (48 km) long and up to 300 feet (90 m) deep. The exposed strata contain numerous fossils (esp. hominids) spanning the full range of the Pleistocene period.

Olduvai Gorge

10

the skills and tools people use to meet their basic needs

technology

11

paleoanthropologist who found the woman that shook up our family tree. In 1974, he discovered a 3.2 million year old fossil of a female skeleton in Ethiopia that would forever change our understanding of human origins. Dubbed Australopithecus afarensis, she became known to the world as Lucy. In the years since, he and his colleagues have unearthed a total of 363 specimens of Australopithecus afarensis that span 400,000 years.

Donald Johanson

12

"southern ape-men"; earliest human-like creatures, three to four million years ago

Australopithecines

13

humanlike creatures

Hominids

14

more advanced human form, 1.8 million years ago, made use of larger and more varied tools

Human erectus

15

"handy-human" earliest tool-making hominid

Homo habilus

16

"wise humans" as early as 250,000 years ago

Homo sapiens

17

Homo sapiens, in Germany, relied on a variety of stone tools and first early people to bury their dead

Neanderthals

18

"wise, wise humans" 100,000 years ago, first anatomically modern humans

Homo sapiens sapiens

19

the period ending in 12,000 BCE of human history when humans used simple stone tools, food gatherers

Old Stone Age (Paleolithic Period)

20

the period from 10,000 to 7000 BCE, characterized by a gradual transition from a food gathering/hunting economy to a food producing economy

Mesolithic Age

21

the period between 8000 and 5000 BCE; period in which adaption of sedentary agriculture occurred; domestication of plants and animals was accomplished

New Stone Age (Neolithic Period)

22

cattle and sheep herding societies normally found on the fringes of civilized societies; commonly referred to as "barbarian" by civilized societies

Nomad

23

Means of obtaining subsidence by humans before the mastery of sedentary agriculture; normally typical of band social organization

Hunting and Gathering

24

the belief that spirits and forces live within animals, objects or dreams

Animism

25

The shift from hunting animals and gathering plants for sustenance to producing food by systematic agriculture that occur gradually between 10,000 and 4000 B.C.E.

Agricultural (Neolithic) Revolution

26

to tame animals and adapt crops so they are best suited to use by humans

Domesticate

27

Early urban culture based on sedentary agriculture located in modern southern Turkey, larger in population than Jericho, had greater degree of social stratification

Catal Huyuk

28

Early walled urban culture based on sedentary agriculture located in modern Israel-occupied West Bank near Jordan river

Jericho

29

an amount that is more than needed, excess

Surplus

30

undeveloped economic systems that rely on custom and tradition

Traditional Economy

31

Societies with reliance on sedentary agriculture, ability to produce food surpluses and existence of non-farming elites, along with merchant and manufacturing groups

Civilization

32

sparse, dry, treeless grassland

Steppe

33

having only one god, the doctrine or belief that there is only one god

Monotheism

34

having many gods, belief in the worship of more than one god

Polytheism

35

a skilled craftsmen

Artisan

36

a simple drawing that looks like the object it represents

Pictograph

37

in ancient civilizations, a person specially trained to read, write and keep records

Scribe

38

the spread of idea, customs, and technologies from one people to another

Cultural Diffusion

39

a political unit that includes a city and its surrounding lands and villages

City-State

40

a group of states or territories controlled by one ruler

Empire

41

dating method up to 50,000 years

radiocarbon dating

42

dating method up to 200,000 years

thermoluminesince

43

why were paleothic men and women roughly equal?

they shared responsibility of finding food and both made important decisions that affected the group

44

what did paleothic people eat mostly?

hunted game and gathered nuts, berries, fruits, and wild grains

45

the neolithic revolution was a change from what to what

hunting and gathering to systematic agriculture

46

systematic agriculture gave rise to what?

permanent settlements

47

what new metal was made, how was it made, and what was this new age called?

bronze, made from copper and tin, bronze age

48

where were the first humans developed?

africa

49

why was fire important?

it could be used for cooking, heat, light, and protection

50

what group had the first spoken language?

homo erectus

51

what is the missing link?

bones between neanderthals and humans

52

what group developed into humans?

homo erectus

53

describe the Cro-Magnons

bodies just like modern people; worked with one another in planning large-scale hunts of animals; fossil record is sketchy

54

what do historians believe was the single most important event in human history?

systematic agriculture