Chapter 2: Mesopotamia Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2: Mesopotamia Deck (72):
1

region of the Middle East in which civilizations first arose

Fertile Crescent

2

Region within the Fertile Crescent lies between the tigris and euphrates rivers

Mesopotamia

3

Site of the worlds first civilization located in south eastern Mesopotamia

Sumer

4

Mesopotamian narrative poem that was first told in sumer

The epic of Gilgamesh

5

Systems of ranking groups

Hierarchy

6

In ancient Mesopotamia, a large stepped platform though to have been topped by a temple dedicated to a city's chief god or goddess

Ziggurat

7

in the Ancient middle east, a system of writing that used to wedge shaped marks

Cuneiform

8

The arc of rich land in southwest asia

Fertile crescent

9

when did the sumerians move to the fertile crescent

around 3500 bc

10

Name three problems Sumer faced

1. The floods were not regular
2. the small farming villages had no protection against enemies
3. The area lacked stone, wood, and metal to use for tools

11

What did they trade

Traded extra food for stone, wood, and metal from other lands.

12

Sumer was polythesitic, what did they believe

believing in multiple gods who had different forces over nature and parts of their lives

13

true or false: society was divided into social classes

true, Priests and kings at the top, then the wealthy merchants, ordinary workers, and then slaves at the very bottom

14

What was Sumer first at doing?

first to use bronze, developed first writing system

15

What did sumer invent

arithmetic and geometry

16

Hammarabi conquered what and what was he famous for

conquered Sumer and famous for Hammarabis code of laws

17

describe Hammarabi's code of law

harsh, punished people for wrong doings and kept the government responsible for taking care of its people

18

how did geography impact mesopotamia

the tigris and euphrates rivers would overflow and and leave silt causing rich soil and flourishing agricultural economy. this allowed for a large food supply

19

2300 bc Mesopotamian ruler: founder of akkadian kingdom

Sargon

20

Sixth and best known ruler of the first amorite dynasty of Babylon. Had harsh code of laws

Hammarabi

21

to arrange or set down in writing

codify

22

branch of law that deals with private rights and matters

Civil law

23

branch of law that deals with offenses against others

Criminal law

24

king of Neo-Babylonian empire who reigned in 605 BC - 562 BC. constructed Hanging Gardens of Babylon and destructed Jersusalem's temple

Nebuchadnezzer

25

economic system in which one set of goods or services is exchanged for another

barter economy

26

economy in which decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are based on supply and demand

money economy

27

what does theocracy mean

theo means god crazy means rule. god rules

28

what is a city state

a city that with its surrounding territory forms an independent state.

29

what is an empire

large politcal unit that controls many peoples and terriotories

30

Sumerians invented number system based off what numer

60

31

nomadic people were the first to do what

first into-europeans to use iron

32

why were the phoeniceans prominent traders

had ships and seafaring skills

33

phoecians had how many letter alphabet

22

34

Assyria known for what

military prowess

35

Assyrians developed what type of communivcation system

network of posts with horses carrying messages

36

satrap was a what

protector of the kingdom

37

what made sumer rich

farming

38

what was the highest priest

ruler

39

clay tablets served what purpose

record history and documents

40

jewelry served as a what

staus symbol

41

how was bronze made

melt copper and tin together

42

how was clothing made

from sheep skin nd wool

43

what types of homes did they live in

mud brick homes

44

how does the nile flow

north, towards the mediterranean sea

45

is the nile flood predictable?

yes, unlike the tigris and euphrates river, you could set a watch to the exact day the nile would flood

46

what were pyramids made out of

limestone blocks

47

waterfall

cataract

48

triangular area of marshland formed by deposits of silt at the mouth of some rivers

delta

49

ruling family

dynasty

50

title of rulers of ancient egypt

pharaoh

51

system of government that includes different job functions and levels of authority

Bureaucracy

52

chief minister who supervised the business of government in ancient Egypt

vizier

53

queen of egypt, first woman pharaoh

Hatshepsut

54

King of egypt who conquered syria and much of the euphrates valley and brought great wealth to Egypt

Thutmose III

55

King of Egypt whose reign was marked by the building of monuments.

Ramses II

56

Describe Egypt's geological barriers

deserts to the west and east, the red sea to the east, the mediterrean sea to the north, and the rapids in the southern nile

57

Atum Re was what god

sun god

58

historians divide egyptian history into 3 major parts. what are they

old kingdom, the middle kingdom, and the new kingdom

59

who created the first royal dynasty

menes

60

how were tombs a paradigm shift?

...

61

describe the orion correlation thoery

3 pyramids all built. 2 perfectly aligned, 1 off line. the pyramids and other big places form the pattern of orion in honor of the gods

62

the largest pyramid was for whom

King Khofu

63

how was the great sphinx a paradigm shift

originally thought it was built by the egyptions however, it is now thought that it was there many many years before the egyptians and that the head of the sphinx was a lion. once the egyptians came they chipped away at the lion, causing the unproportional head and body

64

describe the relationship between Akhenaten and king tut

Akhenaten took power away from the priests so he could have a monotheistic religion. after he died, young king tut gave the power back to the priests. king tut was not an important king, being VERY poor. however in his tomb they found TONS of gold. now they wonder how much gold was in the rich peoples tombs

65

what were hieratic script and hieroglyphics used for

hieratic-business and record keeping
hieroglyphic-religion

66

there most important aspects of jewish religion

the covenant, the law, and the prophets

67

babylonians aka

chaldeans

68

jewish sabbath day is

saturday

69

christian sabbath day is

sunday

70

Jewish bible called

Torah

71

when was the torah written

babylonian captivity

72

is the bible a good historical source

technically according to mr gallo, no because very little of the bible has been backed up bu other sources for credibility