Chapter 1 Vocab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Vocab Deck (32):
1

Anatomy

The study of the structure and shape of the body and the body parts and their relationships to one another.

2

Physiology

The study of how the body and it's parts work or function.

3

Cell

The smallest units of all living things.

4

Tissue

consist of groups of simuliar cells that have a common function.

5

Organelle

any of a number of organized or specialized structures within a living cell.

6

Organ

The structure that is composed of two or more tissue types and performs a specific function for the body.

7

Organ system

A group of organs that cooperate to accomplish a common purpose.

8

Organism

Highest level of structural organization.

9

Metabolism

the chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life.

10

Homeostasis

Describes the body's ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though the outside world is constantly changing.

11

negative-feedback mechanisms

occurs when some function of the output of a system, process, or mechanism is fed back in a manner that tends to reduce the fluctuations in the output, whether caused by changes in the input or by other disturbances.

12

Receptor

First component; Some type of sensor that monitors and responds to such changes in the environment.

13

Control center

Determines the level at which the variable is to be maintained, analyzes the information it receives and then determines the appropriate response or course of action.

14

Effector

Provides the means for the control center"s response to the stimulus.

15

positive-feedback mechanism

These control infrequent events that occur explosively and do not require continuous adjustment.

16

anatomical position

The body in standard position.

17

Supierior

The head end or upper part of the body

18

inferior

Away from the head end or toward the lower part.

19

anterior

situated toward the front of the body : ventral

20

posterior

Situated toward the back of the body.

21

sagittal plane

A cut made along the lengthwise, or longitudinal, plane of the body dividing the body into right and left parts.

22

transverse plane

A cut made along a horizontal plane that divides the body into top and bottom sections.

23

frontal plane

A cut made along a horizontal plane that divides the body into Front and back sections.

24

oblique plane

A cut made horizontally.

25

thoracic cavity

Separated from the rest of the ventral cavity by a domed shape muscle.

26

abdominal cavity

Superior; stomach, liver, intestines, and other organs.

27

pelvic cavity

Inferior; reproductive organs, bladder, and rectum.

28

serous membranes

A membrane that lines a cavity without an opening to the outside of the body.

29

pericardial cavity

a natural hollow or sinus within the body

30

pleural cavity

s the thin fluid-filled space between the two pulmonary pleurae (visceral and parietal) of each lung.

31

peritoneal cavity

is a potential space between the parietal peritoneum and visceral peritoneum, that is, the two membranes that separate the organs in the abdominal cavity from the abdominal wall.

32

mesentery

A double layer of peritoneum attached to the abdominal wall and enclosing in its fold certain organs of the abdominal viscera.