Digestive System Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Digestive System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Digestive System Deck (42):
1

gastrointestinal tract

organ system responsible for transporting and digesting foodstuffs, absorbing nutrients, and expelling waste.

2

oral cavity

he cavity of the mouth

3

hard palate

the bony front part of the palate.

4

soft palate

the fleshy, flexible part toward the back of the roof of the mouth.

5

uvula

a fleshy extension at the back of the soft palate that hangs above the throat.

6

lingual frenulum

is a small fold of mucous membrane extending from the floor of the mouth to the midline of the underside of the tongue.

7

pharynx

the membrane-lined cavity behind the nose and mouth, connecting them to the esophagus.

8

esophagus

the part of the alimentary canal that connects the throat to the stomach; the gullet. In humans and other vertebrates it is a muscular tube lined with mucous membrane.

9

mucosa

a mucous membrane.

10

submucosa

the layer of areolar connective tissue lying beneath a mucous membrane.

11

muscularis externa

region of muscle in many organs in the vertebrate body, adjacent to the submucosa.

12

serosa

the tissue of a serous membrane.

13

visceral peritoneum

the part of the peritoneum that lines the abdominal viscera—compare parietal peritoneum.

14

parietal peritoneum

is that portion that lines the abdominal and pelvic cavities. Those cavities are also known as the peritoneal cavity.

15

mesentery

fold of the peritoneum that attaches the stomach, small intestine, pancreas, spleen, and other organs to the posterior wall of the abdomen.

16

stomach

the internal organ in which the major part of the digestion of food occurs, being (in humans and many mammals) a pear-shaped enlargement of the alimentary canal linking the esophagus to the small intestine.

17

cardioesophageal sphincter

pertaining to the cardia of the stomach and the esophagus, as the cardioesophageal junction or sphincter.

18

pyloric sphincter

is a band of smooth muscle at the junction between the pylorus of the stomach and the duodenum of the small intestine

19

rugae

series of ridges produced by folding of the wall of an organ.

20

greater curvature

the boundary of the stomach that forms a long usually convex curve on the left from the opening for the esophagus to the opening into the duodenum—compare lesser curvature.

21

lesser curvature

he boundary of the stomach that in humans forms a relatively short concave curve on the right from the opening for the esophagus to the opening into the duodenum—compare greater curvature.

22

greater omentum

is a large apron-like fold of visceral peritoneum that hangs down from the stomach.

23

chyme

the pulpy acidic fluid that passes from the stomach to the small intestine, consisting of gastric juices and partly digested food.

24

small intestine

the part of the intestine that runs between the stomach and the large intestine; the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum collectively.

25

ileocecal valve

the valve formed by two folds of mucous membrane at the opening of the ileum into the large intestine—called also Bauhin's valve, ileocolic valve, valvula coli

26

duodenum

the first part of the small intestine immediately beyond the stomach, leading to the jejunu

27

jejunum

the part of the small intestine between the duodenum and ileum

28

ileum

the third portion of the small intestine, between the jejunum and the cecum.

29

pancreatic ducts

the chief duct of the pancreas that runs from left to right through the body of the gland, passes out its neck, and empties into the duodenum either through an opening shared with the common bile duct or through one close to it—called also duct of Wirsung, ...

30

bile duct

the duct that conveys bile from the liver and the gallbladder to the duodenum.

31

large intestine

the cecum, colon, and rectum collectively.

32

cecum

a pouch connected to the junction of the small and large intestines.

33

appendix

a tube-shaped sac attached to and opening into the lower end of the large intestine in humans and some other mammals.

34

Colon

The large intestine, also called the colon or the large bowel, is the last part of the digestive system in vertebrates. Water is absorbed here and the remaining waste material is stored as feces before being removed by defecation.

35

rectum

the final section of the large intestine, terminating at the anus.

36

anal canal

is the most terminal part of the lower GI tract/large intestine, which lies between the anal verge

37

ascending colon

the first main part of the large intestine, which passes upward from the cecum on the right side of the abdomen.

38

transverse colon

he middle part of the large intestine, passing across the abdomen from right to left below the stomach.

39

descending colon

the part of the large intestine that passes downward on the left side of the abdomen toward the rectum.

40

sigmoid colon

the S-shaped last part of the large intestine, leading into the rectum.

41

liver

large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates, involved in many metabolic processes.

42

gall bladder

the small sac-shaped organ beneath the liver, in which bile is stored after secretion by the liver and before release into the intestine.