Chapter 2 Vocab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Vocab Deck (41):
1

Matter

Anything that has mass ans takes up space. the "stuff" of the universe.

2

Kinetic Energy

When energy is actually doing work. (Moving objects.)

3

Potential Energy

When it is inactive/stored. (like batteries in an unused toy.)

4

Chemical Engergy

Stored in the bonds of chemical substances.

5

Electrical Energy

Results from the movement of charged particles.

6

Mechanical Energy

directly involved in moving matter.

7

Radiant Energy

Travels in waves. X-Rays for example.

8

Element

All matter is composed of a limited number of substances.

9

Atom

Smallest particle that still remians its special propriety.

10

Proton

Positive charge.

11

Neutron

Unchanged/ Neutral.

12

Electron

Negative charge.

13

Molecules

Smallest particle in a chemical element. When two or more atoms are chemically combined.

14

Compound

Two or more bases are combined.

15

Chemical Reactions

Occur whenever atoms combine with or dissociate from other atoms.

16

Valence Shell

The only electrons that are important when considering bonding behavior are those in the outer most shell.

17

Ionic bonds

Form when electrons are completely transferred from one atom to another.

18

Ions

When there is no positive of negative charge.

19

Covalent Bonds

Electrons do not have to be completely lost or gained for atoms to become stable.

20

Hydrogen bonds

Extremely weak bonds formed when a hydrogen atom bound to one electron-hungry nitrogen or oxygen atom is attracted by another electron-hungry atom, and the hydrogen forms a bridge between them.

21

synthesis reactions

Occur when two or more atoms or molecules combine to form a larger more complex molecule.

22

Decomposition reactions

Occur when a molecule is broken down into smaller molecule atoms or ions.

23

Exchange Reactions

Involve both synthesis and decomposition reactions; bonds are both made and broken down.

24

Inorganic Compounds

Lack Carbon containing compounds.

25

Organic compounds

Carbon containing compounds.

26

Electrolytes

Substances that conduct an electrical current in solution.

27

Carbohydrates

hydrogen and oxygen atoms appear in the same ratio as in water.

28

glucose

universal cellular fuel.

29

Monosaccharides

single-chain or single ring structures containing 3-7 carbon atoms.

30

Disaccharides

two simple sugars are joined by a synthesis reaction.

31

Polysaccharides

long branching chains of linked simple sugars.

32

Lipids

large diverse group of organic compounds.

33

Triglycerides

2 types of building blocks fatty acids and glycerol.

34

Phospholipids

always part of the molecule and takes the place of one of the fatty acid chains.

35

Steriods

flat molecules formed of four interlocking rings.

36

cholesterol

most important steroid molecule.

37

Protein

account for over 50 percent of the organic matter in the body.

38

Amino Acids

The building blocks of proteins are small molecules.

39

Enzymes

functional proteins that act as biological catalysts.

40

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid. a major nucleic acid.

41

ATP

Adenosine triphospate. provides a form of chemical energy.