Flashcards in Chapter 10 Deck (50):
Why do cells divide?
Cell division reduces information overload and material exchange issues.
What does the rate at which materials are exchanged through the cell membrane depend on?
The surface area
What does the rate at which food and oxygen are used and waste is produced depend on?
True or false: larger cells have a smaller surface area to volume ratio.
What happens to the surface area and volume of a cell as it grows?
The surface area to volume ratio gets smaller.
Why is a larger cell worse than a small cell?
The larger cell needs more food and is producing more waste than can be moved across the given surface.
What is cell division?
A cell dividing into two "daughter" cells.
True or false: during mitosis, the daughter cells are genetically diverse from the mother cell.
False; the "daughter" cells are genetically identical.
Asexual reproduction occurs in most __________ and some __________ organisms.
Most- single-called organisms
Some- multi-cellular organisms.
List 2 advantages of rapid reproduction.
1.) It is quick
2.) You can easily repopulate a dying species.
What type of reproduction produces genetically diverse organisms?
What is an advantage of asexual reproduction?
1.) cells are genetically identical meaning there is no way of evolving.
What is an advantage of sexual reproduction?
1.) Species can evolve due to the diverse genes.
What a disadvantage or sexual reproduction?
1.) you need a mate so it takes longer.
2.) species cannot reproduce as quickly meaning they have a harder time repopulating an endangered species.
Most animals, plants, and many single-celled organisms produce how?
If a mother cell has 16 chromosomes, how many will each daughter cell have?
What are chromosomes made of?
DNA in the form of chromatin wrapped around histone proteins.
True or false: all organisms do not have the same amount of chromosomes.
When are chromosome visible during the cell cycle? Why?
Cell division; the DNA and protein condense and spread through out the nucleus.
What does a chromosome consist of?
2 identical "sister" chromatids.
What attaches the chromatids on a chromosome?
Definition of cell cycle.
Series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide.
What two main phases does the cell cycle consist of?
Interphase and M phase.
True or false: M phase is longer than interphase.
What 3 phases does interphase consist of?
G1 (1st growth phase), S phase (synthesis phase), G2 (2nd growth phase)
What happens during G1?
Cells do most of their growing (size, making proteins and organelles).
What happens during S phase?
Chromosomes get replicated, DNA synthesis, and key chromosomal proteins are replicated.
What happens during G2?
New organelles and molecules are produced.
What is the shortest phase in interphase?
What are the two sub phases in M phase?
Mitosis and cytokinesis
What is mitosis?
The splitting of the nucleus.
What is cytokinesis?
The splitting of the cytoplasm.
What are the 4 sub phases in mitosis?
(Pass me a taco)
What happens during prophase?
Chromatin condenses into chromatin
Centrioles separate (exception: plants)
Nuclear envelope breaks down
What happens during metaphase?
Duplicated chromosomes line up at the center of the cell and connect to a spindle fiber.
One old and one new chromosome form a chromatid pair.
What happens during anaphase?
Chromosomes split and sister chromatids move toward their respective centriole.
What happens during telophase?
Chromosomes gather at opposite ends of cell and start to unwind from their condensed form.
Two new nuclear envelopes form.
True or false: cytokinesis is when the cytoplasm pinches in half.
What happens during cytokinesis in a plant cell?
A cell plate divides the beginning cell and a new cell membrane forms as well.
What happens during cytokinesis in animal cells?
The cell membrane is drawn inward and pinches.
True or false: cell growth and division can be regulated.
Definition of contact inhibition.
The halting of cell growth because of coming in contact with another cell.
What 3 proteins regulate the cell cycle?
Cyclins, internal regulators, external regulators.
What do cyclins do?
They regulate the timing of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells.
What do internal regulators do?
They respond to events inside the cell. (Ex. Mitosis won't start until all chromosomes are replicated)
What do external regulators do?
Respond to events outside the cell (ex. Wound healing)
What is cancer?
Uncontrolled cell growth.
What two types of tumors are there?
Benign and malignant.
What is a benign tumor?
Tumor that does not spread to surrounding tissue.