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Flashcards in Chapter 10 Deck (36):
1

Information System

software and data that help in planning and decision making

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System Development Life Cycle (SDLC)

Process used to develop information systems. Steps:
1. Problem Identification
2. Analysis
3. Design
4. Development
5. Testing
6. Maintenance

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Program Specification

clear statement of the goals and objectives of the project.

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Data Flow Diagrams

trace all data in an information system from the point at which data enters the system to its final resting place.

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Scope Creep

an ever-changing set of requests from the clients for additional features as they wait longer and longer to see a working prototype.

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Programming

the process of translating a task into a series of commands that a computer will use to perform that task.

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Program Development lifecycle

1.describe the problem
2. making a plan
3. coding
4. Debugging
5. Testing

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Problem statement

the starting point of programming work. It is a clear description of what tasks the computer program must accomplish and how the program will execute those tasks and respond to unusual situations

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algorithm

specific sequential steps taht describe exactly what the computer program myst do to complete the work.

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Data

Raw input that users have at the start of the job.

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information

the result, or output, that the users require at the end of the job.

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Method

the process of how the program converts the inputs into the correct outputs.

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error handling

part of the program statement that addresses what the program should do if invalid data is inputed.

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testing plan

lists specific input numbers that the programmers would typically expect the user to enter.

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Flowcharts

provide a visual representation of the patterns the algorithm comprises.

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Pseudocode

a text based approach to documenting an algorithm. In pseudocode, words describe the actions that the algorithm will take.

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decision points

places in algorithms where the program must choose from a list of actions based on the value of a certain input.

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binary decisions

decision points that are usually referred to as "fork in the road" because they can be answered in one of only two ways.

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loop

in a loop, a question is asked, and if the answer is yes, a set of actions is performed

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Initial value

a beginning point; the total pay for the week starts at the initial value of $0.

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test condition

a check to see whether the loop is completed. The algorithm should run the loop seven times, no more and no fewer.

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control structures

the general term used for keywords in a programming language that allow the programmer to direct the flow of the program bases on a decision.

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Top down designs

a systematic approach in which a problem is broken into a series of high level tasks.

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object oriented analysis

programmers first identify all the categories of inputs that are part of the problem the program is meant to solve.

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classes

categories in object oriented analysis

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object

Different examples of a class.

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reusability

general and reusable solutions created normally through programming in object oriented analysis.

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inheritance

a new class can automatically pick up all the data and methods of an exisiting class and then can extend and customize those to fit its own specific needs.

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base class

the original class.

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derived class

the new modified class.

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Syntax

an agreed on set of rules defining how a language must be structured.

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Statements

sentences in a code.

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syntax errors

violations of the strict, precise set of rules that define the programming language

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keywords

set of words that have predefined meanings for a particular language.

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Data types

describes the kind of data being stored at the memory location.

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operators

coding symbols that represent