Flashcards in Exam #2 Flashcards Deck (185):
What is the technical term for software?
refers to a set of instructions that tells the computer what to do.
What is a program?
an instruction set that provides a means for us to interact with and use the computer.
What is application software?
the software you use to do tasks at home, school, and work.
What is system software?
software that helps run the computer and coordinate instructions between application software and the computer's hardware devices.
What are mobile apps?
installed on a computing device but generally a device that is mobile and connected constantly to the internet. Need internet to function.
What are web based applications?
Apps used almost exclusively online. They are obtained as Software as a Service. Gmail, google docs.
Software that is used to do productive tasks. Word processing, powerpoint, etc.
A collection of productivity programs that are bought together.
What is a personal information manager (PIM) software?
Productivity suites that let you moderate email, calendars, contacts, etc. Ex. Outlook
Software as a service
Vendors host the software online and you access and use the software over the internet.
Walks you through the steps necessary to complete a complicated task.
a predesigned form.
a small program that groups a series of commands so that they will run as a single command.
financial planning software
helps you manage you daily finances. mint, etc
tax preparation software
lets you prepare your state and federal taxes on your own instead of hiring a professional. Turbo Tax, HR Block
helps small business owners manage their finances more efficiently by providing tools fro tracking accounts receivable and accounts payable.
Allows professionals to design books and other applications.
Web Authoring software
allows anyone to design awesome websites instead of using HTML 5.
Vertical market software.
software used by Big businesses to do BIG and specific things; real estate companies use it.
computer aided design
programs that lets you make cool designs and fancy drawings, and 3D stuff. AutoCad is a program that lets you do this.
where you can store files and data on the web. Google drive
gives you an experience that lets you control a software as if you were actually using it. Flight training, surgical instrument training, etc.
Course management software
tools and information are found here. blackboard, canvas.
Copyrighted software that you can use for free.
public domain software
there is absolutely no ownership such as copyright, trademark, or patent.
an application that is still under development.
End User License Agreement (EULA)
an agreement between you, the user, and the software company. It is a legal contract that outlines the acceptable uses of the program and any actions that violate the agreement.
Synonymous to EULA
making illegal copies of software, or using it outside of the EULA.
a set that specifies the minimum recommended standards for the operating system, processor, RAM, and hard drive.
a group of programs that controls how your computer functions.
manages computer's hardware, helps application software work with the CPU, and is responsible for the management, scheduling, and coordination of tasks.
a small program that performs many of the general housekeeping tasks for your computer.
you interact with your OS through the user interface. desktop, icons, and menus.
perform more than one process at a time
Real time operating system RTOS
also called embedded system; require minimal user interaction. has a specific purpose, and it must guarantee certain response times.
multiuser operating system (network operating system)
lets more than one user access the computer system at a time by handling and prioritizing requests from multiple users.
a multiuser, multitasking OS that is used as a network OS.
Microsoft's newest OS, provides an interface optimized for touch screen devices and is designed to run across all devices: phones, tablets, laptops, and desktops.
An operating environment that incorporates a user friendly, visual interface similar to Apple's first OS.
first commercially available OS to incorporate the ability to interact with the computer with a user friendly point and click technology.l
an open source os designed for use on personal computers and as a network OS.
interface is one in which you enter commands to communicate with the computer system.
menu driven interface
interface in which you choose commands form menus displayed on the screen.
interface that displays graphics and use the point and click technology of the mouse and cursor, making them much more user friendly
program that helps coordinate all print jobs currently being sent to the printer.
temporary storage in RAM for print queue
The process of optimizing RAM storage by borrowing
The process of optimizing RAM storage by borrowing hard drive space.
when more RAM is needed, the OS swaps some
when more RAM is needed, the OS swaps some "less used" data to a temporary storage area (swap file)
Process of swapping data from the swap file back onto the ram
when your computer becomes sluggish because of excessive paging.
Each device connected to your computer comes with a special program called a device driver that facilitates communication between the device and the OS.
plug and play
a software and hardware standard designed to facilitate the installation of new hardware in PCs by including in the OS the drivers these devices need in order to run.
1. Activating BIOS
2. Performing the Power-on self test
3. loading the OS
Basic input/output system, stored on a Read only memory. Manages the exchange of data between the OS and all the input and output devices attached to the system, and loads the OS into the RAM form its permanent location.
Power on self test. The first job of BIOS performs is to ensure that essential peripheral devices are attached and operational.
the main files of the OS. When it is located, the OS loads into the RAM from its permanent storage location on the hard drive.
kernel (supervisor program)
the kernel is the essential component of the OS. It's responsible for managing the processor and all other components of the computer system.
the registry contains all the different configurations (settings) used by the OS and by other applications. Contains the customized settings you put into place, such as mouse speed, as well as instructions as to which programs should be loaded first.
The verification of your login name and password
The desktop is The primary working area.
The taskbar displays open and favorite applications for easy access.
the start menu provides you with access to all your applications in one convenient screen.
You can choose which application are visible on the start menu through a process called pinning.
file management provides an organized structure to your computer's contents.
windows organizes the contents of your computer in a hierarchal directory structure composed of drives, libraries, folders, subfolders, and files.
a file is a collection of program instructions of data that is stored and treated as a single unit.
collection of files.
the main tool for finding, viewing, and managing the contents of your computer.
locating a file by tracking its path from the drive, folders, and subfolders.
the backlash character (/) used by windows.
generally the name you assign to the file when you save it.
extension (file type)
follows the file name and a period, extension identifies what kind of family of family of files the file belongs to, or which application should be used to read the file.
a folder on the desktop, represented by an icon that looks like a recycling bin, where files deleted from the hard drive reside until you permanently purge them from your system.
file compression utility
a built in utility program that takes out redundancies in a file (zips it) to reduce the file size.
Disk clean up
a windows utility that removes unnecessary files from your hard drive.
FAT (file allocation table)
"table of contents" for file names and hard-drive locations.
the task manager lists all the programs you're using and indicates their status. If a program has stopped working, you can use the windows task manager.
rearranges fragmented data so that related file pieces are unified.
where data is recorded on hard disks in concentric circles.
section of tracks broken down into pie shaped wedges.
the smallest segments within sectors.
a utility in windows that lets you roll your system settings back to a specific date when everything was working well.
system restore point
a snapshot of your entire system's setting.
includes data, people, procedures, hardware, and software that help in planning and decision making.
system development life cycle. an organized process to ensure that development proceeds in an orderly fashion. made to be free of errors and well supported.
Each programming project follows several steps, from conception to final development.
sequential steps that describe exactly what the computer program must do to complete the work.
the starting point of programming work; its a clear description of what tasks the computer program must accomplish and how the program will execute those tasks and respond to unusual situations
the raw input that users have at the start of the job.
the result, or output, that the users require at the end of the job.
what the program should do if the input data is invalid.
provide a visual representation of the patterns the algorithm comprises.
a text based approach to documenting an algorithm.
places where the program must choose from a list of actions based on the value of a certain input.
decision point that can only be answered in one of two ways.
In a loop a question is asked and if answered yes, a set of actions is performed.
a check to see whether the loop is completed
keywords in a programming language that allow the programmer to direct the flow of the program based on a decision.
the reusability of programming because of the the general creation of the programming.
an agreed on set of rules defining how a language must be structured.
violations of the strict, precise set of rules that define the programming language.
logical errors are caught after the program executes. They are errors with the information provided, not necessarily the syntax.
a set of words that have predefined meanings for a particular language.
Translating an algorithm into a program language.
a kind of "code" for the set of instructions the cpu knows how to perform.
first generation language
machine language. the sequence of 1s and 0s
second generation language
assembly language. allows programmers to write their programs using s set of short, english like commands that speak directly to the CPU
third generation language
uses symbols and commands to help programmers tell the computer what to do.
fourth generation language
database query languages. Like the structured query language.
fifth generation of language
the most natural language.
capability to easily move a program among different types of computers.
Each input and each output item that the program manipulates
the process by which code is converted into machine language- the language the CPU can understand.
a program that understands both the syntax of the programming language and the exact structure of the CPU and its machine language.
errors that are made during programming, keep the program from behaving the way it is supposed to.
the process of running the program over and over to find and repair errors and to make sure the program behaves in the way it should.
helps programmers dissect a program as it runs.
writing code that may divide by zero.
publications that address problems in a program after its commercial release to the public
language used for prototypes; a powerful programming language used to build a wide range of windows applications.
higher level programming language features, but still allows programmers to manipulate the system memory and cpu registers directly.
language used to collect information from networked computers.
language most used to program os x, and ios applications.
a new programming language introduced by Apple for developing for ios and os x.
hypertext markup language; uses tags that control how a web browser will display text, images, and other content.
a scripting language thats customized to work with the elements of a web page and its often used to add interactivity to web pages.
a collection of related data that can be stored, sorted, organized, and queried.
unnecessary extra copies of data in a database
when different versions of the same data appear in different places in a data base.
no need for multiple lists
ensures accuracy and reliability.
process to ensure data is organized most efficiently.
an it professional who is responsible for designing, constructing, and maintaining databases.
database management system is the software that allows a computer to perform database functions.
a database organizes data into categories called fields.
each field is identified by a field name
a group of related fields is a record.
file; a group of related records
metadata/design.... field size, default value, and caption.
the data type indicates what type of data can be stored in the field and prevents the wrong type of data from being entered into the field.
defines the maximum number of characters that a field can hold.
a single digit number or 1 alphabetic letter
operates by organizing data into various tables based on logical groupings.
a link between tables that defines how the data is related.
provides a unique value for each record.
the common field in the related table.
a specially designed computer language used to manipulate data in or extract data from a database.
structured query language; a standard language used to construct queries to extract data from relational databases.
the value the database automatically uses for the field unless the user enters another value.
used to control how new data is entered into a database.
the process of ensuring that data entered into a field meets specified guidelines.
part of the data dictionary and is specified in the field properties.
ensures that the data entered into the field falls within a certain range of values.
a property that must be satisfied for an entry to be accepted into the field.
ensures that all required fields have been completed.
compares the values of data in two or more fields to see if those values are reasonable.
confirms that only textual characters are entered in a field.
confirms that only numbers are entered in the field.
visual sorting/extraction of table data.
a question; extracts a subset of data from a database.
a large scale collection of data that contains and organizes in one place all the data from an organization.
time variant data
meaning it doesn't all pertain to one period in time.
software used on company websites to capture information about each click that users make as they navigate through the site.
small slices of the data warehouse
great amounts of data extracted, analyzed, and investigated to find patterns
software based tools to gather and analyze data.
transaction processing system; keeps track of everyday business transactions or activities.
means that transaction data is accumulated until a certain point is reached and then several transactions are processed at once.
real time processing
means that the database is updated while the transaction is taking place.
online transaction processing; ensures that the data in the TPS is current]
business intelligence systems
another form of business system; a set of technologies used to analyze and interpret large sets of data in order to enable managers to make informed decisions about how to best run their business.
management information system. provides timely and accurate information that enables managers to make critical business decisions
provides a list of the transactions that occurred during a certain time period.
provides a consolidated picture of detailed data.
shows conditions that are unusual of that need attention by system users.
Artificial intelligence; the branch of computer science that deals with the attempt to create computers that think like humans.
knowledge based system
provides intelligence that supplements the user's own intellect and makes the DSS more effective.
tries to replicate the decision making processes of human experts in order to solve specific problems.
Natural language processing system; enable users to communicate with computer systems using natural spoken or written language instead of using a computer programming language.
enables the interjection of experiential learning into the equation by considering probabilities. close; not exact
enterprise resource planning system; a software system that accumulates in a central location all information relevant to running a business and makes it readily available to whoever needs it to make decisions.
Steps in the System development life cycle
1. problem and opportunity identification