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Flashcards in Exam #2 Flashcards Deck (185):
1

What is the technical term for software?

refers to a set of instructions that tells the computer what to do.

2

What is a program?

an instruction set that provides a means for us to interact with and use the computer.

3

What is application software?

the software you use to do tasks at home, school, and work.

4

What is system software?

software that helps run the computer and coordinate instructions between application software and the computer's hardware devices.

5

What are mobile apps?

installed on a computing device but generally a device that is mobile and connected constantly to the internet. Need internet to function.

6

What are web based applications?

Apps used almost exclusively online. They are obtained as Software as a Service. Gmail, google docs.

7

Productivity software

Software that is used to do productive tasks. Word processing, powerpoint, etc.

8

Software Suite

A collection of productivity programs that are bought together.

9

What is a personal information manager (PIM) software?

Productivity suites that let you moderate email, calendars, contacts, etc. Ex. Outlook

10

Software as a service

Vendors host the software online and you access and use the software over the internet.

11

wizard

Walks you through the steps necessary to complete a complicated task.

12

template

a predesigned form.

13

macro

a small program that groups a series of commands so that they will run as a single command.

14

financial planning software

helps you manage you daily finances. mint, etc

15

tax preparation software

lets you prepare your state and federal taxes on your own instead of hiring a professional. Turbo Tax, HR Block

16

accounting software

helps small business owners manage their finances more efficiently by providing tools fro tracking accounts receivable and accounts payable.

17

Desktop publishing

Allows professionals to design books and other applications.

18

Web Authoring software

allows anyone to design awesome websites instead of using HTML 5.

19

Vertical market software.

software used by Big businesses to do BIG and specific things; real estate companies use it.

20

computer aided design

programs that lets you make cool designs and fancy drawings, and 3D stuff. AutoCad is a program that lets you do this.

21

Cloud computing

where you can store files and data on the web. Google drive

22

Simulation programs

gives you an experience that lets you control a software as if you were actually using it. Flight training, surgical instrument training, etc.

23

Course management software

tools and information are found here. blackboard, canvas.

24

freeware

Copyrighted software that you can use for free.

25

public domain software

there is absolutely no ownership such as copyright, trademark, or patent.

26

Beta version

an application that is still under development.

27

End User License Agreement (EULA)

an agreement between you, the user, and the software company. It is a legal contract that outlines the acceptable uses of the program and any actions that violate the agreement.

28

Software License

Synonymous to EULA

29

software piracy

making illegal copies of software, or using it outside of the EULA.

30

System requirements

a set that specifies the minimum recommended standards for the operating system, processor, RAM, and hard drive.

31

operating software

a group of programs that controls how your computer functions.
manages computer's hardware, helps application software work with the CPU, and is responsible for the management, scheduling, and coordination of tasks.

32

utility program

a small program that performs many of the general housekeeping tasks for your computer.

33

user interface

you interact with your OS through the user interface. desktop, icons, and menus.

34

multitask

perform more than one process at a time

35

Real time operating system RTOS

also called embedded system; require minimal user interaction. has a specific purpose, and it must guarantee certain response times.

36

multiuser operating system (network operating system)

lets more than one user access the computer system at a time by handling and prioritizing requests from multiple users.

37

Unix

a multiuser, multitasking OS that is used as a network OS.

38

Window 10

Microsoft's newest OS, provides an interface optimized for touch screen devices and is designed to run across all devices: phones, tablets, laptops, and desktops.

39

windows OS

An operating environment that incorporates a user friendly, visual interface similar to Apple's first OS.

40

Mac OS

first commercially available OS to incorporate the ability to interact with the computer with a user friendly point and click technology.l

41

Linux OS

an open source os designed for use on personal computers and as a network OS.

42

command-driven interface

interface is one in which you enter commands to communicate with the computer system.

43

menu driven interface

interface in which you choose commands form menus displayed on the screen.

44

GUI

interface that displays graphics and use the point and click technology of the mouse and cursor, making them much more user friendly

45

spooler

program that helps coordinate all print jobs currently being sent to the printer.

46

buffer

temporary storage in RAM for print queue

47

virtual memory

The process of optimizing RAM storage by borrowing

48

virtual memory

The process of optimizing RAM storage by borrowing hard drive space.

49

swap file

when more RAM is needed, the OS swaps some

50

swap file

when more RAM is needed, the OS swaps some "less used" data to a temporary storage area (swap file)

51

paging

Process of swapping data from the swap file back onto the ram

52

thrashing

when your computer becomes sluggish because of excessive paging.

53

device driver

Each device connected to your computer comes with a special program called a device driver that facilitates communication between the device and the OS.

54

plug and play

a software and hardware standard designed to facilitate the installation of new hardware in PCs by including in the OS the drivers these devices need in order to run.

55

boot process

1. Activating BIOS
2. Performing the Power-on self test
3. loading the OS
4. authentication

56

BIOS

Basic input/output system, stored on a Read only memory. Manages the exchange of data between the OS and all the input and output devices attached to the system, and loads the OS into the RAM form its permanent location.

57

POST

Power on self test. The first job of BIOS performs is to ensure that essential peripheral devices are attached and operational.

58

System files

the main files of the OS. When it is located, the OS loads into the RAM from its permanent storage location on the hard drive.

59

kernel (supervisor program)

the kernel is the essential component of the OS. It's responsible for managing the processor and all other components of the computer system.

60

registry

the registry contains all the different configurations (settings) used by the OS and by other applications. Contains the customized settings you put into place, such as mouse speed, as well as instructions as to which programs should be loaded first.

61

authentication

The verification of your login name and password

62

desktop

The desktop is The primary working area.

63

taskbar

The taskbar displays open and favorite applications for easy access.

64

start menu

the start menu provides you with access to all your applications in one convenient screen.

65

pinning

You can choose which application are visible on the start menu through a process called pinning.

66

file management

file management provides an organized structure to your computer's contents.

67

directory

windows organizes the contents of your computer in a hierarchal directory structure composed of drives, libraries, folders, subfolders, and files.

68

file

a file is a collection of program instructions of data that is stored and treated as a single unit.

69

folder

collection of files.

70

file explorer

the main tool for finding, viewing, and managing the contents of your computer.

71

file path

locating a file by tracking its path from the drive, folders, and subfolders.

72

path separator

the backlash character (/) used by windows.

73

file name

generally the name you assign to the file when you save it.

74

extension (file type)

follows the file name and a period, extension identifies what kind of family of family of files the file belongs to, or which application should be used to read the file.

75

recycle bin

a folder on the desktop, represented by an icon that looks like a recycling bin, where files deleted from the hard drive reside until you permanently purge them from your system.

76

file compression utility

a built in utility program that takes out redundancies in a file (zips it) to reduce the file size.

77

Disk clean up

a windows utility that removes unnecessary files from your hard drive.

78

FAT (file allocation table)

"table of contents" for file names and hard-drive locations.

79

Task manager

the task manager lists all the programs you're using and indicates their status. If a program has stopped working, you can use the windows task manager.

80

disk defragmenting

rearranges fragmented data so that related file pieces are unified.

81

track

where data is recorded on hard disks in concentric circles.

82

sector

section of tracks broken down into pie shaped wedges.

83

clusters

the smallest segments within sectors.

84

sytem restore

a utility in windows that lets you roll your system settings back to a specific date when everything was working well.

85

system restore point

a snapshot of your entire system's setting.

86

information system

includes data, people, procedures, hardware, and software that help in planning and decision making.

87

SDLC

system development life cycle. an organized process to ensure that development proceeds in an orderly fashion. made to be free of errors and well supported.

88

PDLC

Each programming project follows several steps, from conception to final development.

89

Algorithm

sequential steps that describe exactly what the computer program must do to complete the work.

90

Problem Statement

the starting point of programming work; its a clear description of what tasks the computer program must accomplish and how the program will execute those tasks and respond to unusual situations

91

data

the raw input that users have at the start of the job.

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information

the result, or output, that the users require at the end of the job.

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error handling

what the program should do if the input data is invalid.

94

flowchart

provide a visual representation of the patterns the algorithm comprises.

95

pseudocode

a text based approach to documenting an algorithm.

96

decision point

places where the program must choose from a list of actions based on the value of a certain input.

97

binary decision

decision point that can only be answered in one of two ways.

98

loop

In a loop a question is asked and if answered yes, a set of actions is performed.

99

test condition

a check to see whether the loop is completed

100

control structure

keywords in a programming language that allow the programmer to direct the flow of the program based on a decision.

101

reusability

the reusability of programming because of the the general creation of the programming.

102

syntax

an agreed on set of rules defining how a language must be structured.

103

syntax error

violations of the strict, precise set of rules that define the programming language.

104

logical errors

logical errors are caught after the program executes. They are errors with the information provided, not necessarily the syntax.

105

Keywords

a set of words that have predefined meanings for a particular language.

106

coding

Translating an algorithm into a program language.

107

programming language

a kind of "code" for the set of instructions the cpu knows how to perform.

108

first generation language

machine language. the sequence of 1s and 0s

109

second generation language

assembly language. allows programmers to write their programs using s set of short, english like commands that speak directly to the CPU

110

third generation language

uses symbols and commands to help programmers tell the computer what to do.

111

fourth generation language

database query languages. Like the structured query language.

112

fifth generation of language

the most natural language.

113

portability

capability to easily move a program among different types of computers.

114

variable

Each input and each output item that the program manipulates

115

compilation

the process by which code is converted into machine language- the language the CPU can understand.

116

compiler

a program that understands both the syntax of the programming language and the exact structure of the CPU and its machine language.

117

bugs

errors that are made during programming, keep the program from behaving the way it is supposed to.

118

debugging

the process of running the program over and over to find and repair errors and to make sure the program behaves in the way it should.

119

debugger

helps programmers dissect a program as it runs.

120

runtime error

writing code that may divide by zero.

121

service pack

publications that address problems in a program after its commercial release to the public

122

Visual Basic

language used for prototypes; a powerful programming language used to build a wide range of windows applications.

123

c, c++

higher level programming language features, but still allows programmers to manipulate the system memory and cpu registers directly.

124

java

language used to collect information from networked computers.

125

objective c

language most used to program os x, and ios applications.

126

swift

a new programming language introduced by Apple for developing for ios and os x.

127

HTML

hypertext markup language; uses tags that control how a web browser will display text, images, and other content.

128

javascript

a scripting language thats customized to work with the elements of a web page and its often used to add interactivity to web pages.

129

database

a collection of related data that can be stored, sorted, organized, and queried.

130

data redundancy

unnecessary extra copies of data in a database

131

data inconsistency

when different versions of the same data appear in different places in a data base.

132

data centralization

no need for multiple lists

133

data integrity

ensures accuracy and reliability.

134

normalization

process to ensure data is organized most efficiently.

135

database administrator

an it professional who is responsible for designing, constructing, and maintaining databases.

136

DBMS

database management system is the software that allows a computer to perform database functions.

137

field

a database organizes data into categories called fields.

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field name

each field is identified by a field name

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record

a group of related fields is a record.

140

table

file; a group of related records

141

field properties

metadata/design.... field size, default value, and caption.

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data type

the data type indicates what type of data can be stored in the field and prevents the wrong type of data from being entered into the field.

143

field size

defines the maximum number of characters that a field can hold.

144

character

a single digit number or 1 alphabetic letter

145

relational database

operates by organizing data into various tables based on logical groupings.

146

relationship

a link between tables that defines how the data is related.

147

primary key

provides a unique value for each record.

148

foreign key

the common field in the related table.

149

query language

a specially designed computer language used to manipulate data in or extract data from a database.

150

SQL

structured query language; a standard language used to construct queries to extract data from relational databases.

151

default value

the value the database automatically uses for the field unless the user enters another value.

152

input forms

used to control how new data is entered into a database.

153

validation

the process of ensuring that data entered into a field meets specified guidelines.

154

validation rule

part of the data dictionary and is specified in the field properties.

155

range check

ensures that the data entered into the field falls within a certain range of values.

156

field constraint

a property that must be satisfied for an entry to be accepted into the field.

157

completeness check

ensures that all required fields have been completed.

158

consistency check

compares the values of data in two or more fields to see if those values are reasonable.

159

alphabetic check

confirms that only textual characters are entered in a field.

160

numeric check

confirms that only numbers are entered in the field.

161

filter

visual sorting/extraction of table data.

162

query

a question; extracts a subset of data from a database.

163

data warehouse

a large scale collection of data that contains and organizes in one place all the data from an organization.

164

time variant data

meaning it doesn't all pertain to one period in time.

165

clickstream data

software used on company websites to capture information about each click that users make as they navigate through the site.

166

data mart

small slices of the data warehouse

167

data mining

great amounts of data extracted, analyzed, and investigated to find patterns

168

information system

software based tools to gather and analyze data.

169

TPS

transaction processing system; keeps track of everyday business transactions or activities.

170

batch processing

means that transaction data is accumulated until a certain point is reached and then several transactions are processed at once.

171

real time processing

means that the database is updated while the transaction is taking place.

172

OLTP

online transaction processing; ensures that the data in the TPS is current]

173

business intelligence systems

another form of business system; a set of technologies used to analyze and interpret large sets of data in order to enable managers to make informed decisions about how to best run their business.

174

MIS

management information system. provides timely and accurate information that enables managers to make critical business decisions

175

detail report

provides a list of the transactions that occurred during a certain time period.

176

summary report

provides a consolidated picture of detailed data.

177

exception report

shows conditions that are unusual of that need attention by system users.

178

AI

Artificial intelligence; the branch of computer science that deals with the attempt to create computers that think like humans.

179

knowledge based system

provides intelligence that supplements the user's own intellect and makes the DSS more effective.

180

expert system

tries to replicate the decision making processes of human experts in order to solve specific problems.

181

NLP

Natural language processing system; enable users to communicate with computer systems using natural spoken or written language instead of using a computer programming language.

182

fuzzy logic

enables the interjection of experiential learning into the equation by considering probabilities. close; not exact

183

erp

enterprise resource planning system; a software system that accumulates in a central location all information relevant to running a business and makes it readily available to whoever needs it to make decisions.

184

Steps in the System development life cycle

1. problem and opportunity identification
2. analysis
3. design
4. development
5. testing
6. maintenance

185

steps in the program development lifecycle

1. describing the problem
2. making a plan
3. coding
4. debugging
5. testing and documentation