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Flashcards in Exam #3 Flashcards Deck (186):
1

Internet Protocol Address

a set of four groups of numbers; how computers identify each other on the internet

2

social media

social networking, wikis, blogs, podcasts, and webcasts. (web 2.0= collaborative technology/programs

3

social networking

using the web to communicate and share information among your friends and others.

4

wiki

a web application that allows users to add, remove, or edit its content.

5

project management tools

incorporate tasks and calendars so the individual components as well as the entire project can stay on schedule.

6

podcast

form of digital media comprised of a series of audio or video files that are distributed over the internet.

7

Rss

Real Simple Syndication- sends the latest content of the podcast series automatically to an aggregator, like itunes or feedspot.

8

webcast

usually live broadcast of audio or video content over the internet.

9

email

electronic mail- a written message sent or received over the Internet- still remains the most widely used form of communication on the internet.

10

web-based email

yahoo, gmail, managed with your web browser and allows you to access you email from the web.

11

e-commerce

electronic commerce- electronic process of conducting business online.

12

B2C (Business to consumer)

transactions take place between businesses and consumers. (Amazon)

13

B2B (business-to-business)

businesses buy and sell goods and services to other businesses.

14

C2C(consumer-to-consumer)

transactions occur when consumers sell to each other through sites such as eBay.

15

B2G (Business-to-government)

Businesses offering services in to the government

16

C2G (consumer-to-government)

consumer to government transactions (taxes)

17

Social commerce

uses social networks to assist in marketing and purchasing.

18

multimedia

anything that involves one or more form of media in addition to text.

19

streaming media

streaming media via the internet without having to download it.

20

web browser

a software that lets you locate, view, and navigate the web.

21

URL (Uniform resource locator)

A website's unique address.

22

domain name

part of the URL. Domain name consist of two parts: the site's host and a suffix that indicates the type of organization

23

HTML

Hypertext transfer Protocol. The protocol that allows files to be transferred from a web server so that you can see them on your computer by using a browser.

24

Web server

a computer that hosts the website you're requesting

25

FTP

file transfer protocol; designed to transfer large files and downloads.

26

host

location that maintains the computers that store the website files.

27

top level domain

suffix after the dot in a URL

28

path (subdirectory)

information in each page separated by a slash on the URL

29

hyperlinks

specially coded elements that let you jump from one web page to another.

30

bookmarks/favorites

easy way to return to specific webpage. places a marker of the site's URL an a retrievable list in your browser's toolbar.

31

subject directory

A subject directory organizes Internet sites by subject, and is usually maintained. by humans instead of software

32

search engine

a set of program that search s the web for keywords and then returns a list of the sites on which those keywords are found.

33

keywords

specific word you wish to look for or query)

34

query

criteria or question for the search engine database.

35

metasearch engines

search other search engines rather than individual websites (dog pile)

36

boolean operators

words such as AND NOT and OR that describe the relationships between keyword i a search

37

intellectual property

the result of someone else's creativity or knowledge; music, writing, and software.

38

cyberbullying

involves the use of digital technologies such as the internet, cellphones, or videos to bully another.

39

privacy

not being required to reveal you behavior to others.

40

geolocation

where are you? apps track you location with your permission.

41

network

simply two or more computers that are connected via software and hardware so they can communicate with each other.

42

node

each device connected to a network is referred to as a node.

43

network administration

installing hardware and software; monitoring efficiency; configure security

44

data transfer rate

bandwith; maximum speed that data can be transmitted.

45

throughput

actual speed of data transfer

46

network architecture

network design and size

47

PAN

personal area network. devices close to one person; bluetooth mobile hotspots

48

LAN

local area network. connects to nodes in close proximity; school, starbucks

49

HAN

Home area network; used to connect home nodes to the internet

50

Metropolitan area network

provides network to large geographical areas, like cities.

51

wide area network

spans a large physical distance. Internet is the largest wan, coveringthe globe.

52

peer to peer

two or more computers share resources without having to connect to a separate server

53

wifi

wireless fidelity- a facility allowing computers, smartphones, or other devices to connect to the Internet or communicate with one another wirelessly within a particular area.

54

backward compatibility

ability of new devices to use earlier standards

55

transmission media

The kind of pathways used to transmit information

56

twisted pair cable

phoneline

57

unshielded twisted pair cable

cat 5 and cat 6

58

coaxial cable

cable tv cables

59

fiber optic cables

A technology that uses glass (or plastic) threads (fibers) to transmit data. A fiber optic cable consists of a bundle of glass threads, each of which is capable of transmitting messages modulated onto light waves. ... Fiber optic cables have a much greater bandwidth than metal cables.

60

network adapter

A network adapter is the component of a computer's internal hardware that is used for communicating over a network with another computer. It enable a computer to connect with another computer

61

NIC (network interface card)

It is an expansion card that enables a computer to connect to a network; such as a home network,

62

packets

A packet is the unit of data that is routed between an origin and a destination on the Internet or any other packet-switched network.he Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) layer of TCP/IP divides the file into "chunks" of an efficient size for routing.

63

router

Routers take information that arrives through your broadband signal via a modem, decipher it, and deliver it to your computer. The router will also choose the best route for the data packet so that you receive the information quickly.

64

modem

In short, your router creates a network between the computers in your home, while your modem connects that network—and thus the computers on it—to the internet. When you connect to Wi-Fi, you’re really connecting to your router, which forwards traffic between the internet and your computer. Many internet providers offer a combined modem/router unit that performs both these functions in one device.

65

Switch

An ethernet switch is a device used to build a network connection between the attached computers (allows computers to talk to each other). It differs from an ethernet hub: While a hub will send incoming data packets to all ports, a switch understands the packets' addressing scheme and will send any data packet only to its destination port

66

Internet of things

connecting ordinary things like lights and doors to a computer network to make them "intelligent". An embedded system or a computer connects each thing together in a network and to the internet.

67

Network operating system

A specialized operating system for a network device such as a router, switch or firewall.

68

Cable internet

form of broadband Internet access in which infrastructure previously used solely for cable television carries digital Internet.

69

Broadband

Wideor high speed bandwidth

70

Digital subscriber line

DSLa way to transmit digital data over a telephone line. Telephone lines only transmit a limited spectrum of signals

71

Fiber optic service

Fiber-optic communication is a method of transmitting information from one place to another by sending pulses of light through an optical fiber. The light forms an electromagnetic carrier wave that is modulated to carry information.[1] Fiber is preferred over electrical cabling when high bandwidth, long distance, or immunity to electromagnetic interference are required.

72

Satélite internet acces

Satellite Internet access is Internet access provided through communications satellites. Modern consumer grade satellite Internet service is typically provided to individual users through geostationary satellites that can offer relatively high data speeds,

73

Mobile broadband

Uses 3G or 4g or lye when wifi isn't available.

74

4g

Latest service standard. Provides people with network will roaming

75

Dial up

Dial-up Internet access is a form of Internet access that uses the facilities of the public switched telephone network (PSTN) to establish a connection to an Internet service provider (ISP) by dialing a telephone number on a conventional telephone line.

76

Network attached storage

Network-attached storage (NAS) is a file-level computer data storage server connected to a computer network providing data access to a heterogeneous group of clients.

77

Piggybacking

establishing a wireless Internet connection by using another subscriber's wireless Internet access service without the subscriber's explicit permission or knowledge.

78

Cyber crime

Cyber crime, or computer related crime, is crime that involves a computer and a network.

79

Identity theft

Identity theft is the deliberate use of someone else's identity, usually as a method to gain a financial advantage or obtain credit and other benefits in the other person's name,

80

Hacker

In computing, a hacker is any skilled computer expert that uses their technical knowledge to overcome a problem

81

White hat

The term "white hat" in Internet slang refers to an ethical computer hacker, or a computer security expert, who specializes in penetration testing and in other testing methodologies to ensure the security of an organization's information systems.[

82

Black hat

A black-hat hacker is a hacker who "violates computer security for little reason beyond maliciousness or for personal gain".

83

Packet analyzer

Sniffer:"; is a computer program or piece of computer hardware that can intercept and log traffic that passes over a digital network or part of a network.

84

Trojan house

any malicious computer program which is used to hack into a computer by misleading users of its true intent.

85

Backdoor computing

often secret, of bypassing normal authentication in a product, computer system, cryptosystem or algorithm etc.

86

Rootkit

A rootkit is a collection of computer software, typically malicious, designed to enable access to a computer or areas of its software that would not otherwise be allowed (for example, to an unauthorized user) and often masks its existence or the existence of other software.

87

Zombie

computer connected to the Internet that has been compromised by a hacker, computer virus or trojan horse program and can be used to perform malicious tasks of one sort or another under remote direction.

88

Denial of service

Denial of service is typically accomplished by flooding the targeted machine or resource with superfluous requests in an attempt to overload systems and prevent some or all legitimate requests from being fulfilled.[1]

89

Denial of service

Zombie continuously sends requests and jams a network server.

90

Distributed denial of service

Distributed denial-of-service attacks on root nameservers are Internet events in which distributed denial-of-service attacks target one or more of the thirteen Domain Name System root nameserver clusters.

91

Bother

A botnet is a number of Internet-connected devices used by a botnet owner to perform various tasks. Botnets can be used to perform Distributed Denial Of Service Attack, steal data, send spam, and allow the attacker access to the device and its connection.

92

Geotag

process of adding geographical identification metadata to various media such as a geotagged photograph or video, websites, SMS messages, QR Codes[1]

93

Virus

a type of malicious software program ("malware") that, when executed, replicates by reproducing itself (copying its own source code) or infecting other computer programs by modifying them.

94

Boot sector virus

Executes when computer boots

95

Logic bomb

Triggers when logic condition is met

96

Time bomb

Certain date or passage of time

97

Worm

Replicates itself

98

Macro virus

Attached to an application software file (word,excel,etc)

99

Email virus

Finally, attached files share many of the same hazards as those found in peer-to-peer filesharing. Attached files may contain trojans or viruses.

100

Ransomware

Ransomware is computer malware that installs covertly on a victim's device (e.g., computer, smartphone, wearable device) and that either mounts the cryptoviral extortion attack from cryptovirology that holds the victim's data hostage, or mounts a cryptovirology leakware attack that threatens to publish the victim's data, until a ransom is paid. Simple ransomware may lock the system in a way which is not difficult for a knowledgeable person to reverse, and display a message requesting payment to unlock it.

101

Polymorphic virus

Rewrites its codes so it can't be detected

102

Multipartite virus

Infects different file types to avoid antivirus detection

103

Stealth virus

Erases own code from hard drive and hides in memory.

104

Social engineering

refers to psychological manipulation of people into performing actions or divulging confidential information.

105

Malware

any software used to disrupt computer or mobile operations, gather sensitive information, gain access to private computer systems, or display unwanted advertising.

106

Adware

is any software package that automatically renders advertisements in order to generate revenue for its author.

107

Spyware

Spyware is software that aims to gather information about a person or organization without their knowledge, that may send such information to another entity without the consumer's consent, or that asserts control over a device without the consumer's knowledge.

108

Key logging

is the action of recording (logging) the keys struck on a keyboard, typically covertly, so that the person using the keyboard is unaware that their actions are being monitored.

109

Gray hat

The term "grey hat" refers to a computer hacker or computer security expert who may sometimes violate laws or typical ethical standards, but does not have the malicious intent typical of a black hat hacker.

110

Trojan horse

In computing, Trojan horse, or Trojan, is any malicious computer program which is used to hack into a computer by misleading users of its true intent.

111

Cookies

Pose no security threat; but does allow accessibility to site login info

112

Pretexting

Creating a legitimate scenario to establish trust

113

Phishing

Using personal email to gather personal info

114

Pharming

Through a website, malicious code placed on your computer.

115

Data breach

unauthorized copying, transmitting, or view of sensitive/confidential information

116

Spear fishing

A targeted attack via email, against individuals using prior knowledge.

117

Firewall

a network security system that monitors and controls the incoming and outgoing network traffic based on predetermined security rules.

118

Antivirus software

is computer software used to prevent, detect and remove malicious software.[1]

119

Virus signature

Virus signatures are just strings of code that are used to identify individual viruses; for each virus, the antivirus designer tries to choose a unique signature string that will not be found in a legitimate program

120

Quarantining

Quarantine is a function of antivirus software that isolates infected files on a computer's hard disk. Files put in quarantine are no longer capable of infecting their hosting system.

121

Strong passwords

The strength of a password is a function of length, complexity, and unpredictability

122

CAPTCHA

A CAPTCHA (a backronym for "Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart") is a type of challenge-response test used in computing to determine whether or not the user is human.[1]

123

Biometric authentication device

A Biometric device is a security identification and authentication device. Such devices use automated methods of verifying or recognising the identity of a living person based on a physiological or behavioral characteristic. These characteristics include fingerprints, facial images, Iris prints and voice recognition.

124

Virtual private network

Virtual network extending a single private network across a public network like the Internet, appearing to users as a private network link

125

Multi factor authentication

2 or 3 forms of ID (debit card and PIN)

126

Back up

Copying and archiving of computer data

127

Program files

Program Files is the directory name of a standard folder in Microsoft Windows operating systems in which applications that are not part of the operating system are conventionally installed.

128

Data file

A data file is a computer file which stores data to be used by a computer application or system.

129

Incremental backup

An incremental backup is one in which successive copies of the data contain only that portion that has changed since the preceding backup copy was made.

130

Image back up

A Disk image, in computing, is a computer file containing the contents and structure of a disk volume or of an entire data storage device

131

Surge protector

is an appliance or device designed to protect electrical devices from voltage spikes.

132

Whole house surge protector

Lightning and other high-energy transient voltage surges can be suppressed with a whole house surge protector. These products are more expensive than simple single-outlet surge protectors, and often need professional installation on the incoming electrical power feed

133

Computer forensics

pertaining to evidence found in computers and digital storage media. The goal of computer forensics is to examine digital media in a forensically sound manner with the aim of identifying, preserving, recovering, analyzing and presenting facts and opinions about the digital information.

134

Network administrator

Maintain network hardware and software

135

Centralized

Client/server networks

136

Decentralized network

Peer to peer

137

Intranet

An intranet is a private network accessible only to an organization's staff.

138

Extranet

An extranet is a website that allows controlled access to partners, vendors and suppliers or an authorized set of customers

139

EDI

an electronic communication method that provides standards for exchanging data via any electronic means.

Electronic data interchange

140

Authentication server

Tracks who's logging into a server

141

File server

a computer attached to a network that has the primary purpose of providing a location for shared disk access,

142

Print server

is a device that connects printers to client computers over a network. It accepts print jobs from the computers and sends the jobs to the appropriate printers, queuing the jobs locally

143

Print queue

Some (multifunction) printers have local storage (like a hard disk drive) to process and queue the jobs before printing.

144

Databases server

A database server is a computer program that provides database services to other computer programs or to computers, as defined by the client–server model.

145

Email server

software that transfers electronic mail messages from one computer to another using a client–server application architecture.

146

Communications server

common platform for a wide range of communications applications and allow equipment providers to add value at many levels of the system architecture.

147

Web server

A web server is a type of server that is used to host websites. Examples of web server software include Apache or IIS. A web server can host one, or many, websites.

148

Cloud server

. For example, Google Apps provides common business applications online that are accessed from a web browser, while the software and data are stored on the Internet servers.

149

Network topology

Arrangement of the various elements of a computer network; topological structure of a network and may be depicted physically or logically

150

Protocol

protocol or communication protocol is a set of rules in which computers communicate with each other.

151

Linear bus network

A bus network is a network topology in which nodes are directly connected to a common linear (or branched) half-duplex link called a bus.

152

Ring topology

A ring topology is a bus topology in a closed loop. Data travels around the ring in one direction. When one node sends data to another, the data passes through each intermediate node

153

Star networks

Star networks are one of the most common computer network topologies. In its simplest form, a star network consists of one central node, typically a switch or hub, which acts as a conduct to transmit messages.

154

Hybrid topology

For example, a tree network (or star-bus network) is a hybrid topology in which star networks are interconnected via bus networks.

155

Wireless access point

A device that allows wireless devices to connect to a wired network using Wi-Fi, or related standards

156

Device driver

a computer program that operates or controls a particular type of device that is attached to a computer.

157

Media access control address

Unique physical ID (serial number) for all network devices

158

Switch

Sends data on a specific network route

159

Router

Send information between two networks

160

Possessed object

A possessed object is any item that a user must carry to gain access to a computer or computer facility. Examples of possessed objects include badges, cards, and keys. Possessed objects are often used in combination with personal identification numbers.

161

Possessed knowledges

Memorized passwords and codes

162

Brute force attack

a brute-force attack consists of an attacker trying many passwords or passphrases with the hope of eventually guessing correctly

163

Access card reader

Access control card readers are used in physical security systems to read a credential that allows access through access control points, typically a locked door. An access control reader can be a magnetic stripe reader, a bar code reader, a proximity reader, a smart card reader, or a biometric reader.

164

Optical carrier line

Optical Carrier transmission rates are a standardized set of specifications of transmission bandwidth for digital signals that can be carried on Synchronous Optical Networking (SONET) fiber optic networks.

165

T line

Twisted pair

166

Circuit switching

Circuit switching is a method of implementing a telecommunications network in which two network nodes establish a dedicated communications channel (circuit) through the network before the nodes may communicate.

167

Packet switching

Packet switching is a digital networking communications method that groups all transmitted data into suitably sized blocks, called packets, which are transmitted via a medium that may be shared by multiple simultaneous communication sessions.

168

TCP/IP

TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is the basic communication language or protocol of the Internet. It can also be used as a communications protocol in a private network (either an intranet or an extranet).

169

ICANN

Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. Organization responsible for coordinating the maintenance and procedures of several databases related to the namespaces of the Internet

170

Static assigning

static (fixed or permanent) assigning of IP

171

Dynamic assigning

dynamic basis, depending on its software and practices.

172

DNS

Phone book for up addresses. The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical decentralized naming system for computers, services, or other resources connected to the Internet or a private network

173

Root dns serve

directly answers requests for records in the root zone and answers other requests by returning a list of the authoritative name servers for the appropriate top-level domain (TLD)
1 of 13 servers contains the entire domain of top level IPs

174

HTML element

An HTML element is an individual component of an HTML document or web page

175

HTTP

Hypertext transfer protocol
an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, and hypermedia information systems.[1] HTTP is the foundation of data communication for the World Wide Web.

176

HTTPS

HTTP Secure. A communications protocol for secure communication over a computer network which is widely used on the Internet

177

Server-side program

Server-side refers to operations that are performed by the server in a client–server relationship in a computer network. Typically, a server is a computer program, such as a web server, that runs on a remote server, reachable from a user's local computer or workstation.

178

Client side servers

Typically, a client is a computer application, such as a web browser, that runs on a user's local computer or workstation and connects to a server as necessary.

179

HTML Embedded scripting language

Languages used in WWW in conjunction with HTML; ex JavaScript and CCC

180

Applet

An applet is a type of program for computers. It is software. Very often, applets are written in Java. People run them in their Web browser. They are used to display a scrolling menu on a website, for example, the applet is also used to show some applications.

181

JavaScript

JavaScript is a scripting language for computers. It is often run in web browser applications to create dynamic content like a popup message or a live clock. It is not related to the programming language Java.

182

MIME

Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) is an Internet standard that extends the format of email to support:

Text in character sets other than ASCII
Non-text attachments: audio, video, images, application programs etc.
Message bodies with multiple parts
Header information in non-ASCII character sets

183

Crowdsourcing

Checking the voice of the crowd. Getting feedback

184

Internet

Network of networks- the host of all networking

185

Www

Subset of the internet- uses HTML and an IP address.

186

Internet backbone

The Internet backbone may be defined by the principal data routes between large, strategically interconnected computer networks and core routers on the Internet.