Flashcards in Chapter 10 Deck (19):
at least one variable was manipulated and at least one variable was measured by the researcher.
researcher assigns participants to a particular level of the variable; example: notetaking method (levels: computer, longhand)
research records what happens in terms of behavior of attitudes based on self-report, behavioral observations, or physiological measures; example: number of anagrams solved correctly.
Independent variable (IV):
Dependent variable (DV):
measured, outcome variable
levels of an independent variable
Up to the researcher to choose
any variable that an experimenter holds constant
alternative explanations, and they can threaten internal validity
a second variable varying along with the IV and provides an alternate explanation
Ie: If the laptop group had to answer more difficult essay questions this would be a design confound.
If large bowls had better pasta than those in the medium bowl group, then that’s systematic
is random or haphazard and affects both groups. It is not a confound. However, it can make it difficult to detect differences in your DV.
occurs in an experiment when the participants in one level of the IV are systematically different than the participants in the other level or levels of the IV.
Matching involves matching groups on some variable (e.g., IQ
different groups of participants placed at different levels of the IV; example: each participant was randomly assigned to either the large or medium serving bowl condition. Two types: posttest-only and pretest/posttest
each participant is presented with all levels of the IV; example: if you conducted a notetaking study and each participant engaged in both longhand and laptop notetaking.
occurs when exposure to one level of the IV influences reactions to other levels of the IV
occurs when participants either get better at a task from practice or get worse at a task due to fatigue (called a fatigue effect
occurs when there is contamination carrying over from one condition to the next. Example: You drink caffeinated coffee and then take a test. Then you drink decaf coffee and take a test. However, the caffeinated coffee is still having an effect on you on the second test.