Flashcards in Chapter 9 Deck (14):

1

## Multivariate design

###
Involves more than two measured variables

Will get closer to causality than bivariate

2

## Three criteria for caustion

###
Covariance: Are the two variables related?

Temporal precedence: Does one variable cause the other variable?

Internal validity: Is there a third variable that might explain the relationship of the first two variables?

3

## Longitudinal design

###
can provide evidence for temporal precedence by measuring the same variables in the same people at several different times; used by developmental psychologists; gets us closer to a causal claim

Repeated observations of the same variables over short and long periods of time

4

## Longitudinal designs yield three types of correlations

### cross-sectional correlations, autocorrelations, and cross-lag correlations

5

## Cross-sectional correlations

### whether two variables measured at the same point in time are correlated

6

## Autocorrelations

###
the correlation of each variable with itself across time.

7

## Cross-lag correlations

###
correlation of the degree to which an earlier measure of one variable is associated with a later measure of the other variable; examines how people change over time. Researchers are most interested in cross-lag correlations because they help establish temporal precedence.

8

## Covariance 9

### when the cross-sectional correlations are significant, covariance has been established.

9

## Temporal precedence 9

###
if one of the cross-lag correlations is stronger than the other, this it moves us closer to figuring out which variables causes the other.

10

## Internal Validity

### by measuring only four variables, as we have in the TV and aggression example, longitudinal designs do not rule out third-variable explanations. Researchers might be able to design their studies in particular ways or do subsequent statistical analyses to address some third variables.

11

## Multiple regression (also known as multivariate regression

### helps address questions of internal validity by ruling out some third variables

12

## Criterion variable

###
dependent variable

What you’re most interested in.

Either in the title or the top row of table

(for example, pregnancy risk)

13

## Predictor variables

###
independent variables.

Listed below criterion variable in the table

for example, amount of sexual content teenagers reported viewing on TV and the age of each teen

14