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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Deck (20):
1

Bivariate correlations

associations that involve exactly two variables
also called bivariate associations

2

R value

Correlation coefficiant

3

T test

Statistic to test the difference between two group averages
It is still possible to calculate an r value, but a t test is more commonly used.

4

What makes a study correlational?

Having two measured variables, using either a bar graph of scatter plot

5

Construct Validity

How well was each variable measured

6

Statistical Validity

How do the data support the conclusion

7

Internal Validity

Can we make a casual inference frmo association?

8

External validity

To whom can the association be generalized?

9

Effect size

describes the strength of an association.
How close they stick to a line

10

Statistical significance

didn’t find the result by chance.
refers to the conclusion researchers make regarding how probable it is that they would get a correlation of that size by chance, assuming that there is not a correlation in the real world

11

P value

Probability estimate
Provides information about statistical significance by evaluation the probability that the association in the sample came form a population with an association of zero
dependent on sample size and effect size.

12

Outlier

An extreme score

13

Restriction of range

When there is not a full range of scores on one of the variables in an association in a correlational study, it can make the correlation appear smaller than it really is.

14

Curvilinear association

Correlation Coefficient is zero (or close to zero), and the relationship isn’t a straight line.

15

The Three Criteria for Establishing Causation

Covariance, Temportal precedence ( the directionality problem), Internal validity (third-variable problem)

16

Covairiance

There must be an association between the cause variable (A) and the effect variable (B).

17

Temporal precedence (the directionality problem):

The causal variable (A) must come before the effect variable (B).

18

Internal validity (third-variable problem)

Is there a third variable (C) that is associated with variables A and B independently? If so, then we can’t infer causation.

19

spurious association

one that is only present because of a third variable

20

Moderator

a variable that can change the relationship of two variables by changing its own level.