Flashcards in [Chapter 10] Genetics Deck (18)
What plant did Mendel study?
Pisum sativum, the garden pea plant.
List three characteristics of the Garden Pea Plant.
Plant is self-fertilizing, flowers produce both male and female gametes, one lineage of the plant can "bleed true" for certain traits.
What are Monohybrid Experiments?
Tests that check for dominant or recessive alleles at one locus. (Aa x AA)
What are Punnett Squares?
A grid used to calculate the probability of genes.
What is a testcross?
One individual of an unknown genotype is cross with another that is homozygous recessive.
What is Mendel's Theory of Segregation?
Diploid cells have pairs of genes, on pairs of homologous chromosomes. The two genes of each pair are separated from each other during meiosis, so they end up in different gametes.
What are Dihybrid Experiments?
They test for dominant or recessive allele at two loci. (AABB x AaBB)
What is the Theory of Independent Assortment?
After meiosis ends, the genes on each pair of homologous chromosomes are sorted into gametes independently of how genes on other pairs of homologues are sorted out.
What is Codominance?
Nonidentical alleles for a gene are both fully expressed; neither is dominant or recessive in heterozygotes. Codominance may occur in multiple allele systems.
What is Incomplete Dominance?
One allele of a pair is not fully dominant over its partner, so the heterozygote’s phenotype is somewhere between the two homozygotes.
What is Epistasis?
Interactions among products of two or more gene pairs. Two or more gene products influence a trait.
What is Pleiotropy?
When one gene influences two or more traits.
What is Marfan Syndrome?
A genetic disorder that arises by mutations in the fibrillin gene. Long, thin fibers of fibrillin protein impart elasticity to many tissues—heart, skin, blood vessels, skeleton, and tendons.
What is all the genes on one chromosome called?
One linkage group. Humans have 23 linkage groups.
What is the outcome of crossing over between a pair of homologous chromosomes disrupts gene linkages.
The outcome is recombination of alleles between homologous chromosomes.
Individuals of populations generally show a range of small differences in most traits. What is this called?
What is Polygenic Inheritance?
The inheritance of multiple genes that affect a trait.