Chapter 10: Muscles Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 10: Muscles Deck (82):
0

what are the properties of muscles?

excitability
contractility
extensibility
elasticity

1

reactive to stimuli from nervous system or environment, generate electrical and mechanical response is called what?

excitability

2

cells actively shorten (contract) upon stimulation, generates tension is called what?

Contractility

3

cells can lengthen (extend) when pulled is called what?

extensibility

4

tendency to rebound (recoil) to some resting length after contraction or extension is called what?

elasticity

5

what are the three muscle types?

skeletal
cardiac
smooth

6

describe skeletal muscle

cylindrical
multinucleated
obvious striations
arranged in parallel

7

what type of muscle has to do with voluntary movement?

skeletal

8

where can you find skeletal muscle?

in skeletal muscles attached to bones or occasionally skin

9

describe cardiac muscle

branching
striated
uninucleate
have intercalated discs

10

what type of muscle contracts and propels blood into the circulation and is involuntarily controlled

cardiac

11

where can cardiac muscle be found

walls of the heart

12

describe smooth muscle

spindle-shaped cells
central nuclei
no striation

13

what kind of muscle type propels substances or objects along internal passageways and is under involuntary control?

smooth

14

where can smooth muscle be found?

walls of hollow organs

15

what are the general functions of skeletal muscle?

movement
maintain posture and body position
support soft tissue
guard entrances and exits
maintain body temp
storage of certain organic moleules

16

what organic molecules does skeletal muscle store?

glucose
amino acids

17

what is the WHOLE muscle surrounded by?

epimysium

18

what surrounds a fascicle?

perimysium

19

what surrounds a muscle fiber?

endomysium

20

what is the cell membrane of skeletal muscle called?

sacrolemma

21

what is the muscle form of E.R?

saracoplasmic reticulum

22

what in the muscle transmits electrical signals?

T-tubules

23

what is a cylindrical bundle of myofilaments called?

myofibril

24

ultramicroscopic threadlike structures made up of various protein molecules are called what?

myofilament

25

what are the two types of myofilaments

thick
thin

26

what is the main protein in thin myofilaments

actin

27

what is the protein called that holds thin filaments together

z-line protein

28

what kind of myofilament do tropomyosin and troponin belong to?

thin myofilaments

29

what is the main protein found in thick myofilament

myosin

30

what kind of protein holds thick myofilaments together?

M-line protein

31

the area between two z-lines that also contains one m-line is called what?

Sarcomere

32

what is the next bundle that the skeletal muscle holds?

muscle fascicle

33

what is the next bundle contained in a muscle fascicle?

muscle fibers

34

what is the next bundle contained by the muscle fiber?

myofibrils

35

what is the myofibril surrounded by?

sarcoplasmic reticulum

36

what does the myofibril consist of?

sarcomeres

37

what connects the thick filaments to the Z-line?

Titin

38

Neurons that are connected to skeletal muscle cells are called what?

Motor neurons

39

The place where motor neuron connects to muscle cell is called what?

neuromuscular junction

40

T/F one motor neuron may contract and stimulate more than one muscle cell (fiber)

T

41

what makes up a motor unit?

neuron + muscle cell it controls

42

What does stimulation of the motor neuron cause?

release of Ca2+ from the SR into the cytoplasm

43

What does Calcium trigger?

the cross bridge cycle
bringing the Z-lines of sarcomeres closer together

44

what involves interactions of muscle proteins such as actin, myosin, troponin, tropomyosin and requires ATP as an energy source?

Cross bridge cycling

45

In what ways can skeletal muscle cells vary?

in size
speed of contraction
amount of force
endurance

46

what are the three fiber types in muscle cells?

type 1 fibers
type 2B fibers
type 2A fibers

47

what type of fibers are SLOW and OXIDATIVE?

Type 1 fibers

48

What type of fibers are FAST and GLYCOLYTIC?

Type 2B fibers

49

What type of fibers are Fast and oxidative?

Type 2A fibers

50

are type 1 fibers fatigue resistant?

yes

51

are type 2 B fibers fatigue resistant?

no, they are easily fatigued

52

are type 2A fibers fatigue resistant?

somewhat

53

In regards to size, type 1 fibers are ___ and type 2B fibers are ____

small
big

54

the speed of contraction in Type 1 fibers is ___ and the speed of contraction in Type 2B fibers is ___ and type 2A fibers are ____

Slow
fast
fast

55

In terms of force generation, Type 1 fibers have ___, Type 2B fibers have ____, and type 2A fibers have ___

Low force
high force
medium force

56

In a picture type 1 fibers are __ in color, type 2B are ___ in color and type 2A are ___ in color

dark
pale
in-between

57

The proportion of fiber types is determined by what?

muscle purpose
genetics
activity/training

58

what are the categories of muscle fiber organization?

Parallel
convergent
circular
Pennate

59

what are the types of pennate muscle organizations?

unipennate
bipennate
multi-pennate

60

fibers that run parallel to the long axis of muscle are called what?

parallel muscles

61

where can you find a parallel muscle?

biceps brachii muscle

62

fibers converging on a single tendon and muscle and are typically triangular are called what?

convergent muscle

63

where can convergent muscle be found?

pectoralis muscle

64

fibers arranged concentrically around opening of rectus are called what?

circular muscle

65

where can circular muscle be found?

Oricularis oris muscle

66

fibers that attach to a tendon at an oblique angle are called what?

pennate muscles

67

fibers that run in an oblique angle to one side of a tendon are called what?

unipennate muscle

68

fibers that run in a oblique angle on both sides of a tendon are called what?

bipennate muscle

69

fibers that run in an oblique angle where the tendon branches with the muscle are called what?

multi-pennate

70

where can uni-pennate muscle be found?

extensor digitorum muscle

71

where can bipennate muscle be found?

rectus femoris muscle

72

where can multi-pennate muscle be found?

deltoid muscle

73

what kind of "discs" does cardiac muscle have?

intercalated discs

74

what is one important way that cardiac muscle differs from skeletal muscles?

they are electrically interconnected with one another

75

what do intercalated disks in cardiac muscle contain?

ion channels

76

do the intercalated discs inhibit electrical activity?

no, they allow it to spread easily from cell to cell so they can contract in unison

77

T/F Actin and myosin are arranged in sarcomeres or myofibrils in smooth muscle?

F they are not arranged in sarcomeres or myofibrils

78

what is actin attached to in smooth muscle?

dense bodies scattered throughout cell

79

how is myosin arranged in smooth muscles?

it is scattered throughout

80

what is the pattern of smooth muscle contraction?

shortening and twisting

81

what type of muscle fibers are probably most abundant in smooth muscle?

Type 1 fibers
due to the fact they have slow contraction, and resistant to fatigue