Flashcards in Chapter 10: Muscles Deck (82):
what are the properties of muscles?
reactive to stimuli from nervous system or environment, generate electrical and mechanical response is called what?
cells actively shorten (contract) upon stimulation, generates tension is called what?
cells can lengthen (extend) when pulled is called what?
tendency to rebound (recoil) to some resting length after contraction or extension is called what?
what are the three muscle types?
describe skeletal muscle
arranged in parallel
what type of muscle has to do with voluntary movement?
where can you find skeletal muscle?
in skeletal muscles attached to bones or occasionally skin
describe cardiac muscle
have intercalated discs
what type of muscle contracts and propels blood into the circulation and is involuntarily controlled
where can cardiac muscle be found
walls of the heart
describe smooth muscle
what kind of muscle type propels substances or objects along internal passageways and is under involuntary control?
where can smooth muscle be found?
walls of hollow organs
what are the general functions of skeletal muscle?
maintain posture and body position
support soft tissue
guard entrances and exits
maintain body temp
storage of certain organic moleules
what organic molecules does skeletal muscle store?
what is the WHOLE muscle surrounded by?
what surrounds a fascicle?
what surrounds a muscle fiber?
what is the cell membrane of skeletal muscle called?
what is the muscle form of E.R?
what in the muscle transmits electrical signals?
what is a cylindrical bundle of myofilaments called?
ultramicroscopic threadlike structures made up of various protein molecules are called what?
what are the two types of myofilaments
what is the main protein in thin myofilaments
what is the protein called that holds thin filaments together
what kind of myofilament do tropomyosin and troponin belong to?
what is the main protein found in thick myofilament
what kind of protein holds thick myofilaments together?
the area between two z-lines that also contains one m-line is called what?
what is the next bundle that the skeletal muscle holds?
what is the next bundle contained in a muscle fascicle?
what is the next bundle contained by the muscle fiber?
what is the myofibril surrounded by?
what does the myofibril consist of?
what connects the thick filaments to the Z-line?
Neurons that are connected to skeletal muscle cells are called what?
The place where motor neuron connects to muscle cell is called what?
T/F one motor neuron may contract and stimulate more than one muscle cell (fiber)
what makes up a motor unit?
neuron + muscle cell it controls
What does stimulation of the motor neuron cause?
release of Ca2+ from the SR into the cytoplasm
What does Calcium trigger?
the cross bridge cycle
bringing the Z-lines of sarcomeres closer together
what involves interactions of muscle proteins such as actin, myosin, troponin, tropomyosin and requires ATP as an energy source?
Cross bridge cycling
In what ways can skeletal muscle cells vary?
speed of contraction
amount of force
what are the three fiber types in muscle cells?
type 1 fibers
type 2B fibers
type 2A fibers
what type of fibers are SLOW and OXIDATIVE?
Type 1 fibers
What type of fibers are FAST and GLYCOLYTIC?
Type 2B fibers
What type of fibers are Fast and oxidative?
Type 2A fibers
are type 1 fibers fatigue resistant?
are type 2 B fibers fatigue resistant?
no, they are easily fatigued
are type 2A fibers fatigue resistant?
In regards to size, type 1 fibers are ___ and type 2B fibers are ____
the speed of contraction in Type 1 fibers is ___ and the speed of contraction in Type 2B fibers is ___ and type 2A fibers are ____
In terms of force generation, Type 1 fibers have ___, Type 2B fibers have ____, and type 2A fibers have ___
In a picture type 1 fibers are __ in color, type 2B are ___ in color and type 2A are ___ in color
The proportion of fiber types is determined by what?
what are the categories of muscle fiber organization?
what are the types of pennate muscle organizations?
fibers that run parallel to the long axis of muscle are called what?
where can you find a parallel muscle?
biceps brachii muscle
fibers converging on a single tendon and muscle and are typically triangular are called what?
where can convergent muscle be found?
fibers arranged concentrically around opening of rectus are called what?
where can circular muscle be found?
Oricularis oris muscle
fibers that attach to a tendon at an oblique angle are called what?
fibers that run in an oblique angle to one side of a tendon are called what?
fibers that run in a oblique angle on both sides of a tendon are called what?
fibers that run in an oblique angle where the tendon branches with the muscle are called what?
where can uni-pennate muscle be found?
extensor digitorum muscle
where can bipennate muscle be found?
rectus femoris muscle
where can multi-pennate muscle be found?
what kind of "discs" does cardiac muscle have?
what is one important way that cardiac muscle differs from skeletal muscles?
they are electrically interconnected with one another
what do intercalated disks in cardiac muscle contain?
do the intercalated discs inhibit electrical activity?
no, they allow it to spread easily from cell to cell so they can contract in unison
T/F Actin and myosin are arranged in sarcomeres or myofibrils in smooth muscle?
F they are not arranged in sarcomeres or myofibrils
what is actin attached to in smooth muscle?
dense bodies scattered throughout cell
how is myosin arranged in smooth muscles?
it is scattered throughout
what is the pattern of smooth muscle contraction?
shortening and twisting