Flashcards in Chapter 10: Reproductive Behaviors Deck (50)
____ ducts are embryonic structures that can develop female's ____, uterus, and upper ___.
In contrast, ____ ducts are precursors to male internal structures such as the seminal ___ and vas ____ (accomplished by androgens produced by the ___).
Mullerian; oviducts; vagina
Wolffian; vesicles; deferens; testes.
___ are organs that produce sperm and ____ (male sex hormones that increase growth of the ____).
Testes; androgens; testes
The ___ glands produce both androgens and estrogens.
____ is a hormone that prepares the uterus for implantation of a fertilized ovum.
___ effects are the lasting structural effects induced by hormones during a ____ period in the ___ trimester.
In contrast, ___ effects are temporary effects induced by hormones, and they occur at any time of life (e.g. degree of ___ drive).
Organizing; sensitive; first.
During the ___ trimester, male and female genitalia look the same, but as ___ develop, they secrete testosterone, which is converted to ____ by enzymes, and induce the development of ____ and ___.
first; testes; dihydrotestosterone; scrotum; penis.
If a fetus is exposed to high levels of androgens and estrogens during the sensitive period, what genitals will develop? Low levels?
High levels = male genitals; low = female (default).
Prenatal exposure to drugs that interfere with androgen response (alcohol, weed, coke, and _____ from plastics) contribute to males developing ____-typical pattern of ___ and behavior.
phthalates; female; anatomy
Sex differences in rodent brains: ____-_____ is a chemical in blood that binds with ____ in the bloodstream of immature mammals. For rodents, this prevents ____ effects; however, testosterone doesn't bind to __-___, it enters hypothalamic neurons where it's converted to _____ which DOES produce ____ effects.
masculinizing; alpha-fetoprotein; estradiol; masculinizing.
Sex differences in play: there is a correlation between the toys that humans play with from __ years old to __ years old.
3 - 13
What significant finding was there in a study of 3 - 8 month old infants regarding toys? What potential confound might there have been?
Girls looked at dolls more than toy trucks, boys looked at both equally. Confounding might be from faster female maturation.
What significant finding was there in a study of monkeys regarding toys?
Male monkey preferred boys toys; female monkeys preferred neutral toys, but played with toy dolls more than the male monkeys did.
Phthalates inhibit ___ production. Because of this, researchers examined prenatal phthalate levels with their male toy use and found that sons exposed to ___ levels had less interest in ___ toys and more interest in ____ toys. Conversely, girls with prenatal exposure to higher testosterone levels correlated to a preference to ___ toys.
high; boys'; girls'
____, a hormone secreted by the ____, regulates reproductive behavior by stimulating ___ contractions, mammary glands, sexual pleasure, ___, and euphoria post-___.
Oxytocin; pituitary; uterine; orgasm; orgasm
Sexual arousal in males is dependent on ____. It binds to receptors in several areas of the hypothalamus, including the ____ hypothalamus, ___ ___ ___ (MPOA), and ____ hypothalamus.
Testosterone also increases ___ sensitivity of the ____, triggers the release of _____ by the medial preoptic area (MPOA) which, in turn, serves to facilitate an _____ (D1 and D5 receptors) as well as an ____ (D2 receptors).
ventromedial; medial preoptic area; anterior.
touch; penis; dopamine; erection; orgasm
There is a positive correlation between ___ levels (in both men and single women) and sexual ____ as well as the drive to seek sexual _____.
testosterone; arousal; partners
Low testosterone levels don't cause ____; impaired ____ ____ is usually the cause. Viagra increases ability by prolonging the effects of ___ ___ which increases blood flow to the penis.
impotence; blood circulation.
How does testosterone affect the hypothalamic areas responsible for sexual behavior?
It triggers the release of dopamine by the MPOA of the hypothalamus.
List 2 explanations for married men having lower testosterone than their single counterparts.
1. Being married reduces the need to find a mate which may lower levels; 2. Men with naturally lower levels may be more inclined to marry.
Anti-____ drugs have been administered to ___ ____ to curb pathologically-high mate-seeking behaviors and sex drive; but difficulties arise when they ____ the medication, and also due to negative __ __ such as diabetes, weight gain, and depression.
androgenic; sex offenders
discontinue; side effects
Describe the 28-day cycle of menstruation (hormones secreted and from what gland).
menstruation → FSH (anterior pituitary to ovary)
→ FSH (anterior pituitary to ovary) → estradiol (ovarian follicle to anterior pituitary)
→ FSH and LH (anterior pituitary to ovary - egg released) → estradiol (ovarian follicle to anterior pituitary)
→ progesterone (corpus luteum to anterior pituitary) → estradiol (ovarian follicle to anterior pituitary) → menstruation
This hormone is released from the anterior pituitary and causes an ovarian follicle to release an ovum.
This hormone prepares the uterus for implantation of a fertilized ovum.
Birth control pills work by making thicker ____ ___, preventing ____, and thinning the lining of the ____ to make it difficult for a _____ ____ to implant.
cervical mucus, ovulation, fertilized ovum
The ___ period is the time around the ____ of the 28-day menstrual cycle where fertility is at its ____ and ___ levels are high.
periovulatory; middle; peak; estrogen
Sex hormones effect ___-___ characteristics as well. For example, women who were given ____ were less sensitive to facial ___, specifically ____, than women who were given a placebo.
testosterone; expressions; anger
Hormonal changes after birth prepare a female mammal to provide ____ and care for young. For example, rats increase ____ and _____ while decreasing _____. The increase in ____ also causes a decrease in sensitivity to ____, which then serves to stimulate the appetite.
oxytocin; prolactin; progesterone
During the late stages of a female's pregnancy, her brain is increasingly sensitive to _____ in areas of the brain that are responsible for ___ behavior.
____ is a hormone that serves multiple roles in other mammals. For example, male prairie voles will be more likely to help rear young if ___ levels are ____.