Chapter 11 - Emotional Behaviors Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11 - Emotional Behaviors Deck (91)
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Emotional situations arouse the __ nervous system



The ___ system is marked by low to moderate autonomic arousal and a tendency to approach, which could characterize happiness or anger.
a. BAS
b. amygdala processing
c. BIS
d. limbic

a. BAS*

"A" is for happy; left is right and right is wrong.


Mariam has damage to her ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Scientists are having her play a game where she has some money and is asked to give any amount she chooses to a trustee. If she gives it to the trustee, the value triples. Then, the trustee can choose to give any amount back to Mariam. Given her damage, she would likely _____.
a. keep most of the money for herself
b. give most of the money to the trustee
c. keep or give the money depending on the gender of the trustee
d. give about half of the money to the trustee

a. keep most of the money for herself

VM damage = trust issues / selfish


_____ and _____ are closely related both behaviorally and physiologically.
a. Sadness; happiness
b. Fear; sadness
c. Anger; sadness
d. Anger; fear

d. Anger; fear


BIS is activated quicker when viewing __ or __ images.

sad; frightening


Research so far has linked panic disorders to abnormalities in the ____, and not necessarily the _____.

c. hypothalamus; amygdala


Marlin and his wife have been dealing with financial hardship for the past several years. This year, it got worse when Marlin was laid off at work. He notices that his wife has been getting sick a lot. What stage of the general adaption syndrome model could explain this?
a. Alarm
b. Exhaustion
c. Adaptation
d. Resistance

b. Exhaustion


Which of the following is NOT part of the HPA axis?
a. Hypothalamus
b. Adrenal cortex
c. Pituitary gland
d. Hippocampus

d. Hippocampus

The other 3 make up the HPA: Hypothalamus stimulates anterior pituitary releases ACTH stimulates adrenal cortex stimulates cortisol release for fight or flight.


Landon has been sick. In response to his infection, his body released ____ that ultimately trigger the release of ____.
a. cytokines; antigens
b. antigens; cytokines
c. cytokines; prostaglandins
d. prostaglandins; cytokines

c. cytokines; prostaglandins


Britta and Edgardo are hiking in the woods when they encounter a bear. Per the James-Lange theory, what would Britta and Edgardo experience last after seeing the bear? Also describe the flow of events.
a. Running away
b. Feeling fear
c. Autonomic arousal
d. Cognitive processing

b. Feeling fear

Event → appraisal (cognitive) → action (jump/startle) → emotional feeling


Coretta was asked a trivia question about what part(s) of the brain are considered to be the most critical for emotion. She correctly answered the _____.
a. cerebellum
b. frontal lobe
c. limbic system
d. brainstem

c. limbic system

Includes forebrain areas surrounding the thalamus: amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, basal ganglia, cingulate gyrus.


The idea of having a limited number of emotions (happiness, sadness, fear, anger, disgust, and surprise) is supported by the empirical finding that ____.
a. specific brain structures are uniquely associated with each of those emotions
b. most people can identify the facial expressions associated with those emotions
c. individuals who have strokes in certain areas still experience the emotions even though they cannot name them
d. individuals with pure autonomic failure no longer experience any emotions but can label those expressions in others

b. most people can identify the facial expressions associated with those emotions


Heidi is participating in a research study. She was asked to interact with a second participant and decide if they would be compatible for a date. If Heidi had activation in her frontal and temporal lobes of the right hemisphere, the researchers would predict that her ____ was active and that she would _____ the other study participant.
a. BIS; avoid dating
b. BIS; agree to date
c. BAS; avoid dating
d. BAS; agree to date

a. BIS; avoid dating


Abe is participating in a study where he is asked to think about a moral dilemma and decide what to do. While he is doing this, researchers are scanning his brain. If the scans show higher levels of activity in the prefrontal cortex and cingulate gyrus, the researchers would expect Abe to base his choice on ____.
a. cultural expectations
b. logic
c. random selection of a choice
d. emotion

d. emotion

cingulate gyrus is part of the limbic system; prefrontal makes executive decisions.


Phineas Gage, a man with __ cortex damage, expressed almost no __; just occasional outburst of __. He understood the consequences of actions, but didn't contemplate how those consequences would make him __. He showed deficiencies in __ making, had __ preferences; and overall reduced __ for others.

prefrontal; emotions; anger.


decision; inconsistent; empathy


Studies of the relationship between testosterone and aggressive behavior suggest that ____.
a. testosterone is associated with aggression in men but not women
b. testosterone has a large and persistent impact on aggression in men and women
c. testosterone is related to aggression only when individuals have pathologically elevated levels
d. aggression depends on the ratio of testosterone to cortisol

d. aggression depends on the ratio of testosterone to cortisol

⬆️ testosterone + ⬇️ cortisol = aggressive & risky behavior


The relationship between serotonin and aggressive behavior may best be summarized as ____. Why is this?
a. excess serotonin stimulates aggressive behavior
b. serotonin is a minor contributor to aggression
c. rapid serotonin turnover predicts interpersonal aggression
d. serotonin levels predict property crimes like arson but not interpersonal crimes

b. serotonin is a minor contributor to aggression

It inhibits impulsive behaviors, so low levels *may* play a role, but it's minor.


Studies of the impact of genes on aggression have implied that ____.
a. the more active MAOA gene leads to less aggression among people who were maltreated as children
b. there are several genes that make significant contributions
c. by the age of one, individuals with genetically mediated high autonomic arousal are more aggressive
d. the less active MAOA gene appears to directly suppress aggression

a. the more active MAOA gene leads to less aggression among people who were maltreated as children

Low MAOₐ + negative environment = more aggression


The ____, present in infants, is an example of a built-in, unlearned fear.
a. startle reflex
b. fear response
c. panic attack
d. Moro reflex

d. Moro reflex


Derrick has been diagnosed with Urbach-Wiethe disease. As a result, he has difficulty identifying facial expressions associated with __.

Urbach-Wiethe disease is a __ disease that results from accumulation of __ in the __. One patient, SM, was asked to draw __, so he drew a person crawling away with hair standing. A possible reason for the deficiency: they focus on the mouth, but __ is in the __.


genetic; Ca+; amygdala


fear; eyes


Norris has been deployed overseas several times and has been diagnosed with PTSD. It is likely that he has a __ than average __.

A study of MZ twins (one served, the other didn't) demonstrated smaller __: the smaller __ increases susceptibility to PTSD.

However, rats with prolonged stress show damage to the __ (somewhat contradictory).

smaller; hippocampus

hippocampus; hippocampus



Benzodiazepines exert their effect on anxiety by facilitating the binding of __ to __ receptors (facilitation to 3 of the 4 binding sites - specifically the __ sites).

Once bound, __ twists the receptor to open a __ channel and cause __.

c. GABA to GABA receptors

GABA; chloride; hyperpolerization


Klaus has been having trouble controlling his anxiety. Instead of consulting with a doctor, he has been using __ to self-medicate because it also binds to the GABAₐ receptors.

__ promotes the flow of __ which causes __ of neurons, but it also reduces __ (an excitatory NT).


Alcohol; chloride; hyperpolarization; glutamate


_____ is not an emotion, but is the result of emotion.
a. Stress
b. Fear
c. Sadness
d. Guilt

a. Stress


Jo has been caring for her aging parents for over a year now. They need almost 24-hour care and it is very stressful for her. At this point, she is likely still in the _____ stage. This is the second stage of the general adaption syndrome model.
a. resistance
b. arousal
c. alarm
d. adaptation

a. resistance


Prolonged stress may damage the __ because increased metabolic activity due to __ release makes cells in this region vulnerable to toxins or __.

hippocampus; cortisol; overstimulation


Research on how stress interacts with the immune system has found that people with PTSD have elevated __ levels.

cytokine levels


__ is the ability to recover from a traumatic experience. People with greater __ tend to have strong __ support, an __ point of view, and strong __ skills (taking a second look at a difficult situation to reign it in).


resilience; social; optimistic; reappraisal


Emotion has __ different definitions; most contain 3 aspects: __ wherein the person evaluates the situation; __ wherein they are scared, happy, etc., and __ where thy laugh, run, etc.

cognition; feeling; action


The __ nervous system is the one that induces "rest and digest". It includes the 12 __ nerves.

The __ system induces "fight or flight".