Chapter 10 - Sexual behaviour Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 10 - Sexual behaviour Deck (66):
1

a behaviour that has different forms or that occurs with different probabilities or under different circumstances in males and females

sexually dimorphic behaviour

2

a matue reproductive cell; a sperm or an egg

gamete

3

the X or Y chromosomes, which determine an organisms gender.
XX = female, XY=male

sex chromosomes

4

an ovary or testes

gonad

5

the gene on the y chromosome whose product instructs the undifferentiated fetal gonads to develop into testes

sry

6

the effect of a hormone on tissue differentiation and development

organizational effect of hormone

7

the effect of a hormone that occurs in the fully developed organism; may defend on the organism's prior exposure to the organizational effects of hormones

activational effects

8

the embryonic precursors of the female internal sex organs

Mullerian system

9

the embryonic precursors of the male internal sex organs

Wolffian system

10

a peptide secreted by the fetal testes that inhibits the development of the mullerian system, which would otherwise become the female internal sex organs

anti-mullerian system

11

an effect of a hormone present of early in development that reduces or prevents the later development of anatomical or behavioral characteristics typical of females

defeminizing effect

12

a male sex steroid hormone. testosterone is the principal mammalian androgen

masculinzing effect

13

the principal androgen found in males

testosterone

14

an androgen, produced from testosterone through action of the enzyme 5a reductase

dihydrotestosterone

15

a condition caused by a congenital lack of functioning androgen receptors; in a person with XY sex chromosomes, causes the development of a female with testes but no internal sex organs

Androgen insensitivity syndrome

16

a condition caused by a congenital lack of anti-mullerian hormone receptors for this hormone; in males, causes development of both male and female internal sex organs

persistant mullerian duct syndrome

17

the presence of only one sex chromosome (an x chromosome); characterized by lack of ovaries but otherwise normal female sex organs and genitalia.

turner's syndrome

18

a hypothalamic hormone that stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to secrete gonadotropic hormone
- starts onset of puberty (under control of kisspeptin)

GnRH

19

a hormone of the anterior pituitary gland that has stimulating effects on cells of the gonads
- stimulate the gonads to produce their hormones, which is responsible for sexual maturation

gonadotropic hormone

20

the hormone of the anteriour pituitary gland that causes development of an ovarian follicle and the maturation of an ovum

FSH

21

a hormone of the anterior pituitary that causes ovulation and development of the ovarian follicle into a corpus luteum.
- causes ovulation, follicle reptures, and releases ovum.
- ruptured follicle becomes a corpus luteum which produces estradoil and progesterone.

LH (leuteinizing hormone)

22

the principal estrogen of many mammals, including humans

estradoil

23

a class of sex hormones that cause maturation of the female genitalia, growth of breast tissue, and development of other physical features characteristic of females

estrogen

24

the female reproductive cycle of most primates; characterized by growth of the lining of the uterus, ovulation, development of a corpus luteum and menstruation

menstrual cycle

25

the female reproductive cycle of mammals other tan primates

estrous cycle

26

a cluster of epithelial cells surrounding an oocyte, which develops into an ovum

ovarian follicle

27

a cluster of cells that develops from the ovarian follicle after ovulation; secretes estradoil and progesterone

corpus leteum

28

a steroid hormone produced by the ovary that maintains the endometial lining of the uterus during the later part of the menstral cycle and during pregnancy; along with estradoil it promotes receptivity in female mammals with estrous cycle
- promotes pregnancy

progesterone

29

a period of time after a particular action during which that action cannot occur again

refractory period

30

the restorative effect of introducing a new female sex partner to a male that has apparently become "exhausted" by sexual activity

coolidge effect

31

a hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland; causes contraction of the smooth muscle of the milk ducts, the uterus, and the male ejaculatory system; also serves as a NT in the brain

oxytocin

32

a spinal sexual reflex seen in many four-legged female mammals; arching of the back in reponse to approach of a male or to touching the flanks, which elevates the hindquarters

lordosis

33

a chemical released by one animal that effects the behaviour of physiology of another animal; usually smelled or tasted

pheromones

34

the slowing and eventual cessation of estrous cycles in groups of female animals that are housed together; caused by a pheromone in animals urine; first observed in mice

lee-boot effect

35

the synchronization of menstral or estrous cycles of a group of females, which occurs only in the presence of a pheromone in a male's urine

whitten effect

36

the earlier the onset of puberty seen in female animals that are housed with males; caused by pheromones in the male's urine

vandenbergh effect

37

termination of pregnancy caused by the odor of a pheromone in the urine of a male other than the one that impregnated the female

bruce effect

38

a sensory organ that detects the presence of certain chemicals, especially when a liquid is actively sniffed; mediates the effects of some pheromones

VNO

39

a neural structure located in the main olfactory bulb that receives information from the VNO

accessory olfractory buld

40

a nucleus that receives olfractory information from the olfractory bulb and accessory olfactory bulb; involved in the effects of odors and pheromones on reproductive behaviour

medial nucleus of the amygdala

41

a condition characterized by hypersecretion of androgens by the adrenal cortex; in females, causes masculinisatioin of the external genitalia

CAH

42

females ovaries produce

ova
estradoil (estrogens)

43

male testes produce

sperm cells
androgens (testosterone)

44

produced by neurons in the arcuate nucleus (hypothalamus).
- essential for initiation of puberty and maintenance of male and female reproductive ability

kisspeptin

45

estadoil in females

breast development, growth of lining of uterus, changes in deposition of body fat, maturation of female genitalia

46

androgens in males

stimulate growth of facial hair, underarm, and pubic hair, lower the voice, alter hairline on head, stimulate muscular development, genital growth

47

entry of penis into vagina

intromission

48

discharge of seman

pelvic thrusting

49

sequence of estradiol followed by progesterone has 3 effects on female rats

1) receptivity
- ability and willingness to copulate
2) proceptivity
- eagerness to copulate
3) Attractiveness
- psycholigcal and behavioural chanes that affect the male (odor and her behaviour)

50

effects of pheromones

AOM sends axons to medial nucleus of amygdala (MeA) projects to anterior and ventromedial nucleus of hypothalamus.

51

adrenal glands secrete abnormal amounts of androgen's
prenatal masculinization
boys normal - girls enlarged clitoris

CAH

52

birth of a boy with normal teste by lack of penis

cloacal exstrophy

53

sexually dimorphic region of hypothalamus, anteriour commissure
- within MPA
- larger in males than in females
- controlled by amount of androgens during fetal development
- critical period 18th day of gestation
- lesions decrase masculine sexual behaviour

SDN

54

BNST

larger in males than females
male-to-female transsexuals, BNST is same size as females
female-to-male transexualds, BNST is the same size as in males
size of BNST was as large in male homosexuals as in male heterosexuals

- size related to sexual identity, not sexual orientation.

55

unicatie nucleus of hypothalamus (medial preoptic area in rats)

twice as large in males than females
size in male-to-female transsexuals is about the same as that of females (similar to BNST)

56

neurons in the unicate nucleus send project to

BNST
- neural circuity that affects a person's sexual identity

57

medial preoptic area

gets input from OB and AOB
- lesions abolish sex behaviour in male rodents
- mediates effects of pheromones on male sex behaviour
- recieves input from MeA and BNST
- recieves somatosensory information from genitals through connections with CTF (central tegmental field) of the mid brain and MeA

58

MeA

one region in nucleus is 85% larger in males than females (lots of androgen receptors)
- destruction disrupts sexual behaviour
- rats with lesions took longer to mount receptive females and ejaculate
- mating increased production of Fos
- receives input from PAG and nPGi of medulla
- nPGi inhibits spinal cord reflexes (5-HT)
- MPA supresses inhibition by inhibiting PAG (excites nPGi)

59

Figure Male Sexual Behaviour

- tactile information from genitals of central tegmental field (CTF) mating causes Fos production
- CTF activate MA (destruction disrupts sex behaviour. mating causes Fos production)
- MA activates MPA (destory abolishes sex behaviours. prenatal stress reduces size of SDN decrease sex behaviour. mating produces Fos production)
- MPA activates nPGi of medulla (part of pathway between MPS and motor neurons of spinal cord - ejaculation/erection)

60

ventromedual nucleus of hypothalamus (VMH)

biltaeral lesions will not display lordosis
- stimulation facilitates female sex behaviour
- MeA projects to VMH

61

Figure female sexual behaviour

- tactile information from genitals activates VMH
- VMH activates MA
- VMH activates PAG of midbrain
- PAG activates reticular formation - activates lordosis

62

peptide in brain responsible for formation of pair bonds - plays bigger role in men

vasopressin

63

peptide responsible for formation of pair bonds - plays bigger role in females
- increases trust, relaxation, calmness, well-being

oxytocin

64

hormone of anteriour pituitary gland, necessary for milk production

prolactin

65

parental behaviours avoidance

aversion response that virgin females make toward odor of pups
- olfactory system inputs to MeA
- lesions of MeA abolish aversion of virgin females to pups
- MeA projects to anterior hypothalamus (AH) projects to PAG (avoidance response)
- MPA inhibits activity of AH-PAG

66

parental caring behaviours

MTA projects to VTA and retrorubral field of midbrain
- dopamengeric neurons in VTA project to NAC (responsible for motivation and reinforcement)
- NAC projects to ventral pallidum (basal ganglia) involved in control of motivated behaviours