Flashcards in Chapter 18 - Drugs Deck (38):
the removal or reduction of an aversive stimulus that is contingent on a particular response, with an attendant increase in the frequency of that response
- A behaviour that turns off (or reduces) an aversive stimulus will be reinforced.
- response makes unpleasant stimuli decrease/end
body’s attempt to compensate for unusual condition
– decrease in sensitivity to a drug that comes from repeated use
primarily the opposite of the effects of the drug
anticipated pleasure associated with an action
amount of pleasure that is actually experienced.
Animals are first trained to make a response (press a lever), that is reinforced by iv injections of drug (cocaine).
Response is extinguished – injections of saline instead of cocaine.
Once the animal stops responding (pressing the lever), experimenter administers a “free” injection of drug.
In response, animals begin pressing lever again.
- inhibition of dACC prevents reinstatement
- activation of vmPFC inhibits responding
new form of learning, animal does not forget to make a particular response, it learns not to.
-vmPFC plays critical role; stimulation of vmPFC with AMPA blocked reinstatement of responding normally produced by free shot of cocaine
- activation of vmPFC inhibited responding
involved in the behavioral effects of natural reinforcers
(blocks opiate receptors) reduce the reinforcing effects of alcohol in humans and rats.
- blocks u opiate receptors
antagonized the reinforcing and sedative effects
sudden withdrawal from long-term administration of a drug caused administration of an antagonistic drug
Potent DA agonists
cocaine and amphetamine
hallucinations, delusions of persecution, mood disturbances, repetitive behaviours
blocks CB1 receptors
One of the leading causes of mental retardation in the Western world.
Effects are most serious during last trimester and several years after birth.
GABAa agonist, NMDA antagonist.
Partial agonist for the μ opiate receptor
- drug high affinity for receptor but, activates less than ligand.
decreases ligand effect in high concentration areas
increases in regions low concentrations
- blocks opiate effects
- produces weak effects
Conjugated cocaine to a foreign protein which stimulated rats’ immune system to develop antibodies to cocaine
Prevented cocaine from passing BBB, less sensitive to activating effects of cocaine
antidepressant drug, catecholine reuptake inhibitor
- used for nicotine addiction
partial agonist for the nicotinic receptor
GABAa receptor (indirect agonist)
barbituates or benzodiazepines
CB1 cannabinoid receptor (agonist)
nicotinic ACh receptor (agonist)
um and delta receptors (agonist)
opiates (heroine, morphine)
blocks DA reuptake
NDMA receptor (indirect antagonist)
release DA - run DA transporter in reverse
produced by unexpected dose of addictive drug.
involved activation of mesolimbic system of dopaminergic neurons
area involved in suppresion of exctinction
area involved in craving
opatite receptors in preoptic area
opiate receptors in recticular formation
opiate receptors in PAG
opiate receptors in NAC and VTA