Chapter 18 - Drugs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 18 - Drugs Deck (38):
1

the removal or reduction of an aversive stimulus that is contingent on a particular response, with an attendant increase in the frequency of that response
- A behaviour that turns off (or reduces) an aversive stimulus will be reinforced.
- response makes unpleasant stimuli decrease/end

negative feedback

2

body’s attempt to compensate for unusual condition
– decrease in sensitivity to a drug that comes from repeated use

tolerance

3

primarily the opposite of the effects of the drug

withdrawl symptoms

4

liking

hedonic value

5

wanting

positive-incentive value

6

anticipated pleasure associated with an action

positive-incentive value

7

amount of pleasure that is actually experienced.

hedonic value

8

Animals are first trained to make a response (press a lever), that is reinforced by iv injections of drug (cocaine).
Response is extinguished – injections of saline instead of cocaine.
Once the animal stops responding (pressing the lever), experimenter administers a “free” injection of drug.
In response, animals begin pressing lever again.
- inhibition of dACC prevents reinstatement
- activation of vmPFC inhibits responding

reinstatement

9

new form of learning, animal does not forget to make a particular response, it learns not to.
-vmPFC plays critical role; stimulation of vmPFC with AMPA blocked reinstatement of responding normally produced by free shot of cocaine
- activation of vmPFC inhibited responding

extinction

10

involved in the behavioral effects of natural reinforcers

endongenous opiods

11

(blocks opiate receptors) reduce the reinforcing effects of alcohol in humans and rats.
- blocks u opiate receptors
antagonized the reinforcing and sedative effects

naloxone

12

sudden withdrawal from long-term administration of a drug caused administration of an antagonistic drug

Antagonist-precipitated withdrawal

13

Potent DA agonists

cocaine and amphetamine

14

hallucinations, delusions of persecution, mood disturbances, repetitive behaviours

psychotic behaviours

15

blocks CB1 receptors

Rimonabant

16

One of the leading causes of mental retardation in the Western world.
Foetal development
Effects are most serious during last trimester and several years after birth.

FAS

17

GABAa agonist, NMDA antagonist.

alcohol

18

Partial agonist for the μ opiate receptor
- drug high affinity for receptor but, activates less than ligand.
decreases ligand effect in high concentration areas
increases in regions low concentrations
- blocks opiate effects
- produces weak effects

Buprenorphine

19

Conjugated cocaine to a foreign protein which stimulated rats’ immune system to develop antibodies to cocaine
Prevented cocaine from passing BBB, less sensitive to activating effects of cocaine

immunotherapy

20

antidepressant drug, catecholine reuptake inhibitor
- used for nicotine addiction

Bupropion

21

partial agonist for the nicotinic receptor

Varenicline

22

opiate antagonist

Naltrexone

23

NMDA-receptor antagonist

Acamprosate

24

GABAa receptor (indirect agonist)

barbituates or benzodiazepines

25

CB1 cannabinoid receptor (agonist)

weed

26

nicotinic ACh receptor (agonist)

nicotine

27

um and delta receptors (agonist)

opiates (heroine, morphine)

28

blocks DA reuptake

cocaine

29

NDMA receptor (indirect antagonist)

PCP, Ketamine

30

release DA - run DA transporter in reverse

amphetamines

31

produced by unexpected dose of addictive drug.
involved activation of mesolimbic system of dopaminergic neurons

relapses

32

area involved in suppresion of exctinction

vmPFC

33

area involved in craving

dACC

34

opatite receptors in preoptic area

hypothermia

35

opiate receptors in recticular formation

sedation

36

opiate receptors in PAG

analgesia

37

opiate receptors in NAC and VTA

reinforcement

38

damage to the _____ disrupts smoking addiction

insula