Chapter 9 - Sleep Flashcards Preview

Behavioral Neurosciencec 3801 > Chapter 9 - Sleep > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 9 - Sleep Deck (78):
1

daily rhythmical change in behaviour or psychological process

circadian rhythms

2

stimulus that resets the biological clock responsible for circadian rhythms

zeitgebers

3

SCN

central to biological clocks
- a hypothalamc nucleus containing the biological clock for many of the body's circadian rhythms
- lesions disrupt circardian rhymths of wheel runing etc.
- provides primary control over the timing of sleep cycles.

4

retinohypothalamic pathway

direct projection from retina to SCN

5

photochemical

melanopsin (ganglion cells)

6

how does SCN control sleep/wake cycle

SPZ - DMHz - vlPOA & orexin in LH

7

projections to vlPOA are

inhibitory - inhibit sleep

8

projections to orexin neurons in LH are

excititory - promote wakefulness

9

measure neural events

EEG

10

measure eye movements

EOG

11

measure muscle tension

EMG

12

large disk electrode places on scale record electrical potentials
- extracellular voltage changes over large area of cortex

EEG

13

stages of sleep

alert - low amplitude, high freq. beta waves
drowsy - similar to alert but, occasional alpha waves
stage 1 - similar to alert but, slower and higer amplutide (theta waves)
stage 2 - similar to stage 1 bur, ossasional sleep spindles and K-complexes
stage 3 - slower, larger, occasional delta spikes
stage 4 - predominance of delta spikes

14

low amplitude, high frequency. beta waves

alert

15

low amplitude (slightly higher), occasional alpha waves

drowsy

16

slower and higher amplitude. theta waves
- light sleep, muscle activity slows down, occasional muscle twitching

stage 1

17

occasional splindles and k-complexes. (large negative followed by large positive deflection)
- breathing pattern and heart rate slows. slight decrease in body temperature.

stage 2

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slower, larger , occasional delta spikes
- deep sleep begins. brain begins to generate slow delta waves

stage 3

19

predominance of delta spikes
- very deep sleep. rhymthic breathing. limited muscle activity. brain produces delta waves.

stage 4

20

loss core muscle tone
low amplitude, high frequency EEG
cerebral activity (O2 consumption, blood flow, neural firing) increases to waking levels
general increase in NS (bp, pulse)
when awaken, person appears alert and attentive
- penile erection/vaginal secretion
- dreams
- EEG desynchrony (rapid, irregular waves)

REM

21

EEG synchrony (slow waves)
moderate muscle tone
slow or absent eye movement
lack of genital activity

SWS

22

dreams during non-rem sleep

isolated experiences (ie: free falling)

23

dreams during rem sleep

stories

24

disguised versions of our real dreams
information that the conscious individual remembers experiencing. It consists of all the elements of actual images, thoughts, and content within the dream that the individual is cognitively aware of upon awakening.

manifest dreams

25

illustrates the hidden meaning of one’s unconscious thoughts, drives, and desires

latent dreams

26

information supplied to the cortex during REM sleep is largely random and that the resulting dream is the cortex's effort to make sense of these random signals

activation-synthesis theory

27

REM

high blood flow to visual association cortex
low in primary visual cortex and PFC
- low activity in primary visual cortex - no input to eyes
- high level in visual association cortex - visual hallucinations that occur during day dreaming
- low in PFC - dreams are poorly organized with respect to time and other PFC tasks

28

nightmares

SWS - stage 4.

29

sleep restriction therapy

- the amount of time that an insomnia is allowed to spend in bed is reduced
- after a period of sleep restriction, the amount of time spend in bed is gradually increased in small increments

30

medical causes of insomnia

sleep apnea
periodic limb movement disorder
restless leg syndrome

31

fall asleep and then cease to breath
- CO2 in blood stimulates chemoreceptors, and person wakes up, grasping for air, O2 levels return to normal, person goes back to sleep, cycle begins again

sleep apnea

32

obstruction of the respiratory passages by muscle spasms or atonia (lack of muscle tone)

obstructive sleep apnea

33

failure of CNS to stimulate respiration

central sleep apnea

34

periodic, involuntary movements of the limbs
- twiched of legs during sleep
- often unaware

periodic limb movement disorder

35

complain of hard-to-describe tension of uneasiness in legs that prevents sleeping

restless leg syndome

36

treatment for periodic limb movement disorder and restless leg syndrome

DA agonists

37

hypersomnia

narcolepsy

38

dream while awake

hypnogogic hallucinations

39

severe daytime sleepiness
boring conditions

narcoleptic sleep attacks

40

just before wake or sleep

sleep paralysis

41

sudden loss of muscle tone - emotional conditions - remains conscious

cataplexy

42

difficulty staying awake
REM sleep intrudes into waking state
- skip sws - go directly to REM from waking
sleep is fragmented - disrupted by periods of waking
- heredity disorder - gene on chromosome 6 strongly influenced by unknown environmental factors

narcolepsy

43

simulant treatment for narcolepsy

methylphenidate (ritalin)

44

treatment for cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucionations

antidepressants

45

newly avalible stimulant for narcolepsy that acts on orexinergic neurons.
increase Fos protein in orexin neurons

modafil

46

some people with this disorder act out their dreams
- rare, almost opposite of cataplexy
- caused by lack of inhibtion of motor neurons that normally occurs during REM sleep

REM sleep behaviour disorder

47

structure of the caudal RF that controls muscle tone during REM sleep

nucleus magnocellularis

48

bedwetting

nocturnal enuresis

49

sleep walking

somnambulism

50

night terror

pavor nocturnus

51

eating during sleep walking, often without recollection

sleep-related eating disorder

52

deficits in attention and memory
dreamlike, confused state, loss of control of ANS, insomnia, fatal.

fatal familial insomnia
(related to mad cow disease)

53

REM sleep faciliates the consolidation of ___

nondeclarative memory

54

SWS facilitates the consolidation of ______

declarative memory

55

conscious recollection of facts and events (semantic and episodic memory)

declarative/explicit

56

experience can alter behaviour without us being consciously aware of exactly what we have learned

nondeclarative/implicit

57

nucleoside whose primary role in the control of sleep

adenosine

58

role of adenosine in sleep

- astrocytes - stock glygogen
- increase in brain activity, glycogen converts to fuel for neurons
- prolonged wakefulness, decrease glycogen in brain
- decrease glycogen, increase adenosine
- inhibit neural activity
- accumilation adenosine - promote sleep

59

5 NT play role in alertness and wakefulness

ACh
NA
5-HT
Histamine
Orexin

60

3 groups ACh neurons

Pons
Basal forebrain (both activation and cortical desynchrony)
medial septum (controls activity of hippocampus)

61

role ACh

ACh agonists increase EEG signs of cortical arousal
ACh antagonists decrease them
- high levels of SCH in hippocampus and neocortex during REM and waking, low during SWS

62

role NE in alertness

locus coerules - located in dorsal pons
- release NE through axonal varicosties
- related to behavioral arousal
- firing rate was high during wakefulness, low during SWS, almost zero during REM
- within a few seconds of awakening, firing rate increased dramatically
- increased vigilance: ability to pay attention to stimuli in the environment

63

beadlike swellings of the axonal branches, contains synaptic vesicles and releases NE

axonal varicosties

64

ability to pay attention to stimuli in the environment

increased vigilance

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role 5-HT

- stimulation of RN causes locomotion and cortical arousal
- PCPA (antagonist) - reduces cortical arousal
- neurons most active during waking
- firing rate decline during SWS
- zero during REM
- facilitate continuous automatic movements

66

Histamine

- cell bodies located in the TMN of the hypothalamus
- connections to cortex - increase cortical activation and arousal
- activity of histamine neurons is high during waking, low during SWS and REM
- histamine antagonists decrease waking, increase sleep
- antihistamines

67

orexin

cell bodies located in LH
excititory
Orexin neurons fired at a high rate during alert or active waking and at a low rate during quiet waking, SWS and REM sleep

68

Preoptic Area

POA
- control of sleep
- contains neurons whose axons inhibit arousal neurons
- destruction of POA produced total insomnia in rats
- stimulation produced signs of drowsiness, sleep
- POA neurons receive inhibitory input histamine, 5-HT, NE neurons

69

vlPOA

damage supresses sleep, increased Fos during sleep

70

MnPN

release GABA
- sends axons to orexin, ACh, NE, 5-HT

71

region of the dorsal pons containing REM-ON cells

SLD

72

region of the dorsal midbrain containing REM-OFF cells

vlPAG

73

regions of REM-ON and REM-OFF cells are connected by

inhibitory GABAergic neurons

74

neurons responsible for muscular paralyisis located just ventral to

REM ON region (SLD)

75

neurons in SLD send axons to

thalamus (control of cortical arousal)
glutamatergic neurons in medial pons RF - ACh neurons of basal formation (arousal and cortical desynchrony)
ACh neurons to tectum
- rapid eye movement

76

SCN - day cycle

during the day cycle, DMH inhibits the vlPOA and excites the brain stem and forebrain arousal systems, stimulating arousal

77

control of seasonal rhythms

pineal gland and melatonin

78

gland attached to the dorsal tectum; produces melatonin and plays a role in circadian and seasonal rhythms

pineal gland