Chapter 10 Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 10 Vocabulary Deck (21)
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1

Gene

Functional unit that controls inherited trait expression that is passed on from one generation to another generation

2

Homologous chromosome

One of two paired chromosomes, one from each parent, that carries genes for a specific trait at the same location

3

Gamete

A haploid sex cell, formed during meiosis, that can combine with another haploid sex cell and produce a diploid fertilized egg

4

Haploid

Cell with half the number of chromosomes as a diploid cell

5

Fertilization

Process by which haploid gametes combine, forming a diploid cell with 2n chromosomes, with n chromosomes from the female parent and n chromosomes from the male parent

6

Diploid

Having two copies of each chromosome

7

Meiosis

Reduction division process, occurring only in reproductive cells, in which one diploid(2n) produces four haploid (n) cells that are not genetically identical

8

Crossing over

Exchange of chromosomal segments between a pair of homologous chromosomes during prophase 1 of meiosis

9

Genetics

The science of heredity

10

Allele

Alternative form that a particular gene may have for a particular trait

11

Dominant

Mendel’s name for a specific trait that appeared in the F1 generation

12

Recessive

Mendel’s name for a specific trait hidden or masked in the F1 generation

13

Heterozygous

Organism with two different alleles for a specific trait

14

Homozygous

Organism with two of the same alleles for a specific trait

15

Genotype

An organism’s allele pairs

16

Phenotype

Observable characteristic that is expressed as a result of an allele pair

17

Law of segregation

Mendelian law staying two alleles for each trait separate during meiosis

18

Law of independent assortment

Mendelian law stating that a random distribution of alleles occurs occurs during the formation of gametes

19

Hybrid

Organism heterozygous for a specific trait

20

Polyploidy

Having one or more extra sets of all chromosomes, which, in polyploid plants, can often result in greater size and better growth and survival

21

Genetic recombination

New combination of genes produced by crossing over and independent assortment