Chapter 9 Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9 Vocabulary Deck (19)
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1

Cell Cycle

Process of cellular reproduction occurring in three stages— interphase (growth), mitosis (nuclear division), and cytokinesis ( cytoplasm division)

2

Interphase

First stage of cell cycle, during which a cell grows, matures, and replicates its DNA

3

Mitosis

Second main stage of cell cycle where cells replicated DNA divides and two genetically identical diploid daughter cells are produced

4

Cytokinesis

Third stage of cell cycle, cell’s cytoplasm divides, making a new cell

5

Chromosome

DNA-containing structure that carries genetic material from one generation to another

6

Chromatin

Relaxed form of DNA in the nucleus of the cell

7

Prophase

First stage of mitosis, during which the cell’s chromatin condenses into chromosomes

8

Sister chromatid

Structure that contains identical DNA copies and is formed during DNA replication

9

Centromere

Cell structure that joins two sister chromatids

10

Spindle Apparatus

Structure made of spindle fibers, centrioles, and aster fibers that is involved in moving and organizing chromosomes before the cell divides

11

Metaphase

Second stage of mitosis in which proteins pull sister chromatids to the cell’s equator

12

Anaphase

Third stage of mitosis in which sister chromatids are pulled apart and microtubules, along with motor proteins, move the chromosomes to opposite poles of the cell

13

Telophase

Last stage of mitosis in which nucleoli reappear. Two new nuclear membranes begin to form , but the cell has not yet completely divided

14

Cyclin

One of the specific proteins that regulate the cell cycle

15

Cyclin-dependent kinase

Enzyme to which cyclin binds during interphase and mitosis, triggering and controlling activities during the cell cycle

16

Cancer

Uncontrolled growth and division of cells that can be caused by changes in control of the cell cycle and also may be caused by environmental changes

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Carcinogen

Cancer-causing substance

18

Apoptosis

Programmed cell death

19

Stem cell

Unspecialized cell that can develop into a specialized cell under the right conditions