Chapter 7 Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Vocabulary Deck (36)
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1

Cell

The basic structural and functional unit of all living organisms

2

Cell theory 1

All living organisms are composed of one or more cells

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Cell theory 2

Cells are the basic unit of structure and organization of all living organisms

4

Cell theory 3

Cells arise only from previously existing cells, with cels passing copies of their genetic material on to their daughter cells

5

Plasma membrane

A special boundary that helps control what enters and leaves the cell

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Organelles

Specialized structures that carry out specific cell functions

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Eukaryotic cells

Contain nucleus

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Prokaryotic cells

Have no nucleus

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Nucleus

Distinct central organelle that contains the cell’s genetic material in the form of DNA

10

Selective Permeability

A member and allows some substances to pass through while keeping others out

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Phospholipid Bilayer

Two layers of phospholipids arranged tail-to-tail in which the plasma membrane is composed of

12

Transport Proteins

Move needed substances or waste materials through the plasma membrane

13

Fluid Mosaic Model

A plasma membrane with substances that can move around within the membrane

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Cytoplasm

The environment inside the plasma membrane that is a semi fluid material

15

Cytoskeleton

A supporting network of long, thin protein fibers that form a framework for the cell and provide an anchor for the organelles inside the cells

16

Ribosomes

The organelles that help manufacture proteins

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Nucleolus

Site if ribosome production within the nucleus

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Endoplasmic Reticulum

Membrane system of folded sacs and interconnected channels that serves as a site for protein and lipid synthesis

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Golgi apparatus

Flattened stack of membranes that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins into sacs called vesicles

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Vacuole

A sac used to store food, enzymes, and other materials needed by a cell

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Lysosomes

Vesicles that contains substances that digest excess or worn-out organelles and food particles

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Centrioles

Organelles made of microtubules that function during cell division

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Mitochondria

Convert due particles into usable energy

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Chloroplast

Organelles that capture light energy and convert it to chemical energy through a process called photosynthesis

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Cell Wall

A thick, rigid, mesh of fibers that surrounds the outside of the plasma membrane, protects the cell, and gives it support

26

Cilia

Short, numerous projections that look like hairs; rowboat motion

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Flagella

Longer and less numerous than cilia; whiplike motion

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Diffusion

The net movement of particles from an area where there are many particles of the substance to an area where there are fewer particles of the substance

29

Dynamic Equilibrium

Condition in which there is continuous movement but no overall change

30

Facilitated Diffusion

Uses transport proteins to move other ions and small molecules across the plasma membrane