Britain was a ______with a parliament and 2 political parties
House of Lords (hereditary nobles and high ranking clergy) could ____bills passed by the House of Commons
_______and________could not vote or serve in Parliament
Catholics, non-Anglican Protestants
Able to elect a representative to Parliament, few people over wide spread of land (votes based on land not population)
By 1830 the_____and the _____were battling over a bill to reform Parliament
Middle class and business interests, led by Gladstone
nobles, landowners, agricultural, led by Disraeli
- Redistributed the House of Commons (eliminated rotten boroughs)
- Enlarged the electorate (property requirement for voting though)
- However, this still did not bring full democracy
Great Reform Act of 1832
- longest reign in British history
- embodied values
- British middle class and working class felt confident in the future
- Emperor of India
- Agreed with lower class’s push for social reform
The reform bill didn’t help____or____
rural, urban workers
Chartists (protesters) drew up the _______, a petition that demanded universal male suffrage, as well as a secret ballot
How many times was the People’s Charter submitted?
Twice with 1M signatures
In 1848, the third attempt was planned with a march and the government feared____so they suppressed the march and the movement declined
Even though the government suppressed the movement…
they passed most of the major reforms
Leader of the Tories that was now known as the Conservative Party
Leader of the Whigs that was known as the Liberal Party
Both alternated between….
______pushed through the reform bill of 1867 (gave the right to vote to working class men_
_____extended suffrage to farm workers and most other men
Britain changed from a constitutional monarchy to a…..
parliamentary monarchy (executive leaders are chosen and responsible to Parliament as well as members of it)
Many bills passed by the House of Commons were turned down by the….
House of Lords
Because of this, a Liberal government passed measures to restrict power including the power to____
_________refused to eat and was force fed
Lady Constance Lytton
trade between countries without government involvement
The government taxed_____to protect local economies
Created laissez-faire (larger markets and open competition)
High tariffs on imported grains (farmers and wealthy landowners supported this)
Repealed in Parliament after…
widespread crop fails in Europe, but were placed again in the 1800’s
Enlightenment thinkers realized the evil of…
slavery (British ships carried the most slaves to the US)
First European country to abolish slavery
Britain (condemned at first until being banned in 1833)
____crimes were punishable by death
Some juries refused to convict criminals until the death penalty was reserved for….
murder, piracy, treason, and arson
Petty criminals were transported to….
Australia (penal colonies)
Parliament passed laws to regulate conditions in ______and_______
- mines couldn’t employ women and children under 10
- 10 hour workday
- Inspectors, minimum wage, maximum hours/wk
Early in the IR_____were outlawed
Made legal but couldn’t______until a year later
go on strike
Sponsored laws to improve public health and housing for workers in cities
Pushed to open up government jobs based on merit
pushed for gradual change in society through legal means instead of violence
Marxism gained only_____support among working class because….
government passed social welfare laws
Didn’t support women’s suffrage
Used violent protesting
Women were eventually allowed to vote in….
Britain faced the….
landlords who owned large estates but didn’t live on them
Irish were forced to pay….
tithes (1/10 annual earnings to support church and clergy)
Ireland faced the…
Irish Nationalist leader
Catholic Emancipation Act
Allowed to vote and hold political office
Liberate Ireland through violence
Leader: Charles Stewart Parnell
Home Rule Bill was passed but was delayed by….
Nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon III (government looked like a constitutional monarchy but he was really a dictator)
Issued new ____that extended democratic rights before war with Prussia
Organized the building of the Suez Canal in Egypt
Ferdinand de Lesseps
legalized labor unions, extended education to girls, and created a small public health program
His worst failure…
Tried to replace Maximilian (Austrian Hapsburg Prince) on the throne of Mexico because he hoped…
to turn Mexico into a French Satellite(but it failed)
Mexican Patriots resisted and US protested, eventually….
France withdrew after 4 years and Prince was shot by Patriots
Helped Italian nationalists defeat Austria gaining…
Nice and Savoy
Bismarck lured napoleon into…..
war (he was captured and Paris was under siege for 4 weeks)
2nd empire_____after his capture
France set up a _____government
Harsh peace with Germany
$ and Alsace and Lorraine
wanted to save the republic from Royalists
rebels (workers, socialists, burgroius republics)
Civil War erupted after…..
Nationalist Assembly ordered them to disband and sent troops
3rd Republic had a….
2 house legislature
- chamber of deputies (elected)
Doubled the number of votes
Reform bill of 1867
The Reform Act of 1832 gave a greater political voice to
Why were the Chartists not satisfied with the Reform Act of 1832?
The bill did not help many rural or urban workers, who could not meet the property requirement
Queen Victoria represented many values, how did these values relate to economic reform?
They promoted reform because they were widely adopted by people at all levels of society
Which British social classes in the 1800s would benefit the most from the elimination of tariffs?
- the working class and the poor, who would gain from lower food prices
- the middle class, which included the people who carried out the trade
What caused France’s political system and government to be unstable?
its coalition government
What was different between how French women tried to get the right to vote compared to how British women tried?
The French favored legal protests
Seen as a conservative force that opposed progressive policies, the French tried to …
repress Church involvement in government
What event ended a long period of French domination of Europe?
defeat by Prussia in the Franco-Prussian War
What problem does having coalitions cause in government?
It is hard for one party to get enough votes to gain power
General George Bovalnger
Minister of war