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Flashcards in Chapter 11 Deck (16):
1

What is spillage of mucin into the soft tissues due to rupture of a salivary gland duct, usually caused by trauma, children and young adults and most common in the lower lip (81%)?

- Mucocele (Mucus Extravasation Phenomenon)

2

What are Mucoceles in floor of mouth, usually lateral to the midline, typically associated with rupture of the sublingual gland duct?

- Ranula

3

What is epithelium-lined cavity that arises from salivary gland tissue, occurs mostly in adults, occurs in major and minor glands, can be multiple, most often in parotid gland, FOM, buccal mucosa, lips and bluish (or normal color) soft fluctuant swelling?

- Salivary Duct Cyst (Mucus Retention Cyst)

4

What is calcifications developed in salivary duct, often in submandibular gland, pain or swelling especially at meal time and may require a radiograph?

- Sialolith, Sialolithiasis (Salivary Stones)

5

What has an infectious and a non-infections state, infectious is viral (mumps) or bacterial, whereas non-infectious could be Sjögren syndrome, Sarcoidosis, and could be caused by allergy or obstruction?

- Sialadenitis

6

What is a Paramyxovirus infection primarily affect the salivary glands, incidence decreases due to MMR, diagnosis based on clinical findings, viral culture, serological tests? What are the three complications that can come from this?

- Mumps (Epidemic Parotitis)
- Complications: Epididymoorchitis (M), oophoritis, mastitis (F)

7

What is a Non-Inflammatory asymptomatic salivary gland Enlargement, mainly in parotid gland and hypertrophy of acini? What are some underlying systemic conditions?

- Sialadenosis (Sialosis)
- Systemic Conditions:
o Endocrine disorders: diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, pregnancy
o Malnutrition: general malnutrition, alcoholism, anorexia nervosa, bulimia
o Drugs: anti-hypertensive drugs, psychotropic drugs

8

What is hyperplasia and/or hypertrophy of normal gland, usually minor glands, often on the hard or soft palate, is a localized, sessile painless swelling that mimics a neoplasm, where pathogenesis unknown, possibly trauma and a biopsy is required to rule out neoplasm?

- Adenomatoid Hyperplasia of the Minor Salivary Glands

9

What is a locally destructive inflammatory condition of the salivary glands, believed to be due to ischemia from trauma, injections or surgery, is frequently found on the palate, is usually unilateral and a biopsy is required to rule out possible malignancy?

- Necrotizing Sialometaplasia

10

Swelling and eversion of the lower lip as a result of hypertrophy and inflammation of the minor salivary glands, the cause is unknown? What does this look like histologically?

- Cheilitis Glandularis
- Chronic sialadenitis and ductal dilation

11

What is excessive salivation, that can be caused by o Local irritations: aphthous ulcers, ill-fitting dentures, GERD, rabies, heavy metal poisoning, medications: lithium, cholinergic agonists, idiopathic paroxysmal qsialorrhea and drooling caused by down syndrome, neurological disorder, ex. cerebral palsy?

- Sialorrhea

12

Subjective sensation of a dry mouth, common problem and in 25% of older adults, can be caused by o Medications caffeine/alcohol, smoking, radiation therapy to head and neck, Sjögren’s syndrome, diabetes mellitus, sarcoidosis, or surgery of salivary glands? What are three complications from this? How to treat?

- Xerostomia
- o Candidiasis
o Prone to cervical and root caries
o Alteration of taste
- Eliminate smoking/alcohol, use sugarless gum, oral lubricants.

13

What is an autoimmune disease mainly affecting salivary and lacrimal glands , 80-90% female and causes dry mouth, and dry eyes? What are the diagnostic criteria for this? What are they at increased risk of?

- Sjögren’s Syndrome (Sicca Syndrome)
- o Positive serum anti-SSA and/or anti-SSB
o Ocular staining score ≥3
o Presence of focal lymphocytic sialadenitis
*Need 2/3
- Increased risk of Lymphoma (40X), and MALT Lymphoma.

14

What has an incidence of 1-6.5 cases/100,000 people, most commonly Parotid Glands (64-80% of all cases both benign and malignant), and more common in upper lip (benign usually) than the lower lip (malignant usually)? In which major salivary gland is it usually malignant? In which minor salivary gland area is it usually malignant? In which minor salivary gland area is it most common? What is the name of the most common benign form? Most common malignant form?

- Salivary Gland Neoplasms
- Sublingual Gland
- Retromolar Pad area
- Palate area
- Pleomorphic Adenoma
- Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma

15

What are the 4 types of Benign Salivary Gland Neoplasms, match the following:
1. Is the most common in both children and adults, makes up a majority of the Parotid and Submandibular tumors, Palate is the most common site for minor gland.
2. Slow growing, painless mass, blue or normal in color, may be multifocal. Usually occurs in the Upper Lip of minor salivary glands. Is a type of monomorphic adenoma.
3. Almost exclusively in parotid gland, second most common benign parotid tumor, may occur bilaterally. Smokers have an eightfold greater risk.
4. Occur mainly in major glands, mostly parotid. Is a benign salivary gland tumor composed of large epithelial cells known as oncocytes. Is a rare neoplasm that is due to excessive accumulation of mitochondria.

1. Pleomorphic adenoma
2. Canalicular adenoma
3. Warthin's Tumor (papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum)
4. Oncocytoma

16

What are the 5 types of Malignant Salivary Gland Neoplasms, match the following:
1. Most common Malignant Salivary Neoplasm and Salivary Gland Tumor in both adults and children. Affect Parotid most often, then minor glands (palate is most common minor gland site).
2. Slow growing mass, Parotid is the most common site, Relatively good prognosis. Is the second most common Malignant Salivary Gland Neoplasm.
3. Slow-growing, widely infiltrative, a tendency for spread. Most common malignant in Submandibular gland. Pain, facial nerve paralysis. 5 y survival rate: 70%, 20 y survival rate: 20%.
4. Almost exclusively occurs in minor glands in the Hard and Soft palate (65% cases). Exhibit different growth patterns histologically.
5. Is also known as a Pleomorphic Adenoma, most common in Major Glands, malignant transformation of the epithelial cells and mass present for MANY years but a recent rapid growth with pain or ulceration. Metastasizing mixed tumor, Histologically benign PA in primary and metastatic sites (bone, lung, lymph node).

1. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma
2. Acinic cell adenocarcinoma
3. Adenoid cystic carcinoma
4. Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (terminal duct adenocarcinoma).
5. Malignant mixed tumor (Pleomorphic Adenoma)