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Flashcards in Chapter 13 Deck (12):
1

What is a General term for a decrease in volume of RBCs or in the concentration of hemoglobin, where the symptoms are Tiredness, Headache, Fainting/feeling lightheaded, Pallor (Pale); where the oral symptoms are mucosa may show pallor or the patient may have a bald tongue (tongue atropy), depending on the type of anemia, as well as burning (glossopyrosis) and pain (glossodynia) localize to the tongue? What is the volume of RBCs?

- Anemia
- Hematocrit

2

What is a Hematologic disorder characterized by a markedly decreased number of circulating blood platelets….the result may be abnormal bleeding (blood can’t clot, blood leaks out of vessels, etc)? What is a normal platelet count? Platelet counts less than _________ is considered severe thrombocytopenia and can result in massive bleeding & death? In thrombocytopenia patients, the small capillaries leak blood which results in what? There are two types of thrombocytopenia (TTP an ITP), what makes them different?

- Thrombocytopenia
- 200,000 – 400,000/mm3
- 10,000/mm3
- Petechiae = pinpoint hemorrhagic lesions
- o ITP occurs in childhood, classically after a viral infection (90% resolve in 6 months)
o TTP is a serious disorder of coagulation and is probably due to endothelial damage (Refer to physician for treatment; 70% survival)

3

What is an Enlargement of lymphoid tissue, Typically due to infection, May affect the lymph nodes, Waldeyer’s ring, or aggregates of lymphoid tissue scattered throughout the oral cavity, are Intraoral lesions appear as discrete, nontender, submucosal swellings, May be normal in color or yellow, If lesions appear on the posterior lateral tongue, they are usually bilateral?

- Lymphoid hyperplasia

4

What means “without granulocytes” (usually neutrophils), can contain Neutropenia—decrease in the number of circulating neutrophils (below 1500/mm3) and Lymphopenia—decrease in lymphocytes (immunosuppression). Viral and fungal infections, Most induced by drugs, Anticancer treatment, Associated bacterial infections because neutrophils are the first line of host defense and Oral symptoms: necrotizing, deep, punched-out ulcerations of the buccal mucosa, tongue and palate?

- Agranulocytosis

5

What Represents several types of malignancies of hematopoietic stem cell derivation, Begins as the malignant transformation of a stem cell, which proliferates in the bone marrow and overflows into the peripheral blood, where Clinical signs and symptoms are related to the reduction in numbers of normal RBCs and WBCs? What are the different types of this (4)? What has a translocation of the chromosomal material between the long arms of chromosomes 9 & 22? What is the most common type? Which is most common in children?

- Leukemia
- o Acute myeloid leukemia
o Chronic myeloid leukemia
o Acute lymphoblastic leukemia
o Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
**(Acute leukemias run an aggressive course and will lead to the death of the patient in a few months if untreated, Chronic leukemias run a more indolent course, though patients eventually succumb to the disease)
- Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), AKA: the Philadelphia chromosome.
- Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
- Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)

6

What are Langerhans cells are dendritic mononuclear cells normally found in the epidermis, mucosa, lymph nodes, and bone marrow, They are antigen presenting cells, More than half of patients are younger than 15 years old, Bone lesions are the most common presentation and where the radiograph has Sharply demarcated (“punched-out”) radiolucencies , Occasionally may be ill-defined, Mandibular lesions appear “scooped out” because the superficial alveolar bone is destroyed, Extensive alveolar bone involvement resembles severe periodontitis clinically and radiographically the teeth look as though they are “floating in air”? What are the three common types and what makes them different?

- Langerhans Cell histiocytosis
- o Eosinophilic granuloma of bone: One or multiple lesions; no visceral involvement
o Acute disseminated histiocytosis – Disease involves bone, skin, and viscera; more prominent involvement; mostly in infants (Letterer-Siwe disease)
o Chronic disseminated histiocytosis – Disease involves bone, skin, and viscera (Hand-Schüller-Christian disease)

7

What is a Malignant lymphoproliferative disorder, has Neoplastic cells are Reed-Sternberg cells, Typically binucleated (“owl-eye” nuclei), Usually presenting sign is a persistently enlarging, nontender, discrete mass or masses in a lymph node region? What is the virus associated with this?

- Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
- Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)

8

What is a Diverse and complex group of malignancies, Usually arise within lymph nodes and grow as solid masses (70%), Occurs primarily in adults, With nodal presentation, the patient is usually aware of a nontender mass that has been slowly enlarging for months and Lesion may be erythematous or purple, Patients who wear a denture may complain that their denture has become too tight? 85% are of __________ origin.

- Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (Lymphoma)
- B-lymphocyte

9

What clinically resembles a fungal infection, It is actually a T-cell lymphoma, it is the Most common cutaneous lymphoma? ________ _______ is an aggressive expression of mycosis fungoides that represents dermatopathic T-cell leukemia. What is an Atypical lymphocytic cells infiltrate the surface epithelium? These form atypical lymphocytes that form small intraepithelial aggregates termed what?

- Mycosis Fungoides
- Sézary syndrome
- Epidermotropism
- Pautrier’s Microabscesses

10

What is a Malignancy of B-cell origin, First documented in African children, Over 90% are positive for EBV, Growth of the tumor mass may produce facial swelling and proptosis and usually occurs in the jaw, it is an Aggressive malignancy; the untreated patient will succumb to the disease in 6 months, and Treatment is intensive chemotherapy, and under Low-power magnification will show the classic “starry-sky” pattern, which is due to macrophages within tumor tissue?

- Burkitt’s Lymphoma

11

What is Typically found in adults, A rare process that is characterized clinically by an aggressive, nonrelenting destruction of the midline structures of the palate and nasal process, Swelling of the palate may precede the formation of a deep, necrotic ulceration, Ulceration is usually found in the midline, The ulceration enlarges and destroys the palatal tissues and Without treatment, the patient will succumb to secondary infection, massive hemorrhage, or infiltration of vital structures and Lesions typically respond to radiation therapy? What is another name for this?

- NK/T-cell lymphoma
- Angiocentric T-cell lymphoma

12

What is a Malignancy of plasma cell origin, Has a multicentric origin within bone, If metastatic disease is excluded, then multiple myeloma accounts for 50% of all malignancies that involve bone, Abnormal cells are monoclonal; likely arise from a single precursor that undergoes uncontrolled mitotic division, Signs and symptoms of the disease result from uncontrolled proliferation of the tumor cells and the uncontrolled manufacture of their protein products, Bone pain is the most characteristic presenting symptom, Most common in the lumbar spine, Some patients may have pathologic fractures, complain of fatigue, or have petechiae, XRAY features: Multiple, well-defined, “punched-out” radiolucencies, May be ragged radiolucent lesions, Especially evident on skull film and Renal failure may be a presenting sign because the kidneys become overburdened with the excess circulating proteins? Up to 50% of patients will multiple myeloma will have proteins in the urine, what are these proteins called?

- Multiple Myeloma
- Termed Bence Jones proteins