Chapter 11 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11 Deck (38):
1

anaphoric inference

an inference that connects an object or person in one sentence to an object or person in another sentence

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balanced dominance

when a word has more than one meaning and all meanings are equally likely

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biased dominance

when a word has more than one meaning and one meaning is more lkely

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broca's aphasia

condition associated with damage to the Broca's area, in the frontal lobe, characterized by labored ungrammatical speech and difficulty in understanding some types of sentences

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causal inference

an inference that results in the conclusion that the events described in one clause or sentence were caused by events that occurred in a previous clause or sentence

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coherence

representation of a text or story in a reader's mind so that information in one part of the story or text is related to information in another part

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common ground

knowledge, beliefs, and assumptions shared between two speakers

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corpus

frequence with which specific words are used and the frequency of different meanings and grammatical constructions in a particular language

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garden path sentence

a sentence in which the meaning that seems to be implied at the beginning of the sentence turns out to be incorrect, based on information that is presented later in the sentence

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given-new contract

in a conversation, a speaker should construct sentences so that they contain both given information (information that the listener already knows) and new information (information that the listener is hearing for the first tim)

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inference

in language, the process by which readers create information that is not explicitly states in the text

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instrument inference

an inference about tools or methods that occurs while reading text or listening to speech

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interactionist approach to parsing

the idea that information provided by both syntax and semantics is taken into account simultaneously as we read or listen to a sentence. Contrasts with the syntax-first approach

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language

a system of communication using sounds or symbols that enables us to express our feelings, thoughts, ideas, and experiences

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late closure

in parsing, when a person encounters a new word, the parser assumes that this word is part of the current phrase

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lexical ambiguity

when a word can have more than one meaning. For example, bug can mean an insect, a listening device, to annoy, or a problem in a computer program

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lexical decision task

a procedure in which a person is asked to decide as quickly as possible whether a particular stimulus is a word or a nonword

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lexicon

a person's knowledge of what words mean, how they sound, and how they are used in relation to other words

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meaning dominance

some meanings of words occur more frequently than others

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morpheme

smallest unit of language that has a definable meaning or grammatical function. For example, truck consists of a number of phonemes but only one morpheme, because none of the components that create the word truck means anything

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parsing

mental grouping of words in a sentence into phrases. The way a sentence is parsed determines its meaning

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phoneme

shortest segment of speech that, if changed, changes the meaning of a word

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phonemic

shortest segment of speech that, if changes, changes the meaning of a word

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phonemic restoration effect

when a phoneme in a word is heard even though it is obscured by a noise, such as a cough. This typically occurs when the word is part of a sentence

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psycholinguistics

field concerned with the psychological study of language

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Sapir-Whorf hypothesis

idea that the nature of language in a particular culture can affect the way people in that culture think

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semantics

meanings of words and sentences. Distinguished from Syntax

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situational model

mental representation of what a text is about

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syntactic coordination

process by which people use similar grammatical constructions when having a conversation

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syntactic priming

hearing a statement with a particular syntactic construction increases the chances that a statement that follows will be produced with the same construction

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syntax

rules for combining words into sentences. Distinguished from Semantics

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syntax-first approach to parsing

approach to parsing that emphasized the role of syntax.

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temporary ambiguity

situation in which the meaning of a sentence, based on its initial words, is ambiguous because a number of meanings are possible, depending on how the sentence unfolds. "Cast iron sinks quickly rust" is an example of a sentence that creates temporary ambiguity

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visual world paradigm

in experiments on language processing, determining how subjects are processing information in a scene as they respond to specific instructions related to the scene

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Wernicke's aphasia

condition, caused by damage to Wernicke's area, that is characterized by difficulty in understanding language, and fluent, grammatically correct, but incoherent speech

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word frequency

relative usage of words in a particular language. For example, in English, home has a higher word frequency than hike

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word frequency effect

phenomenon of faster reading time for high-frequency words than for low-frequency words

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word superiority effect

idea that letters are easier to identify when they are part of a word than when they are seen in isolation or in a string of letters that do not form a word