Chapter 11 - Basic Principles of Pharmacology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11 - Basic Principles of Pharmacology Deck (141):
1

Absorption

The movement of drug from the site of input into the circulation

2

Acetylation

A mechanism in which a drug is processed by enzymes

3

Active Transport

The movement of molecules that occurs with energy input and can occur against concentration gradients

4

Additive Effect

The combined effect of two drugs given at the same time that have similar effects

5

Adrenergic

Having the characteristics of the sympathetic division of the ANS

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Adsorb

To gather or stick to a surface in condensed layer

7

Adverse Effect (Reaction)

An unintentional, undesirable, and often unpredictable effect of a drug used at therapeutic doses to prevent, diagnose, or treat disease

8

Affinity

The intensity or strength of the attraction between a drug and its receptor

9

Agonist

A drug that causes a physiologic response in the receptor to which it binds

10

Alkaloids

A group of plant-based substances containing nitrogen and found in nature

11

Anaphylactic reaction

An unusual or exaggerated allergic reaction to a foreign substance

12

Antagonist

A drug that does not cause a physiologic response when it binds with a receptor

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Assay

A test of a substance to determine its components

14

Autonomic nervous system (ANS)

Division of the peripheral nervous system that regulates many involuntary processes

15

Bioassay

A test that determines the effects of a substance on an organism and compares the result with some agreed standard

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Bioavailability

The sped with which and how much of a drug reaches its intended site of action

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Blood-Brain Barrier

A layer of tightly adhered cells that protect the brain and spinal cord from exposure to medications, toxins, and infectious particle

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Buccal

An administration route in which medication is placed in the mouth between the gum and the mucous membrane of the heel and absorbed into the bloodstream

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Caplet

A tablet with an oblong shape and a film-coated covering

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Capsule

Small gelatin shell in which a powdered or granule form of medication is placed; it is easy to swallow and the shell will not begin to break down until in the GI tract; popular because of a reduced adverse taste when swallowing

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Central Nervous System (CNS)

Brain and spinal cord

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Chemical Name

A precise description of a drug's chemical composition and molecular structure

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Cholinergic

Having the characteristics of the parasympathetic division of the ANS

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Cross Tolerance

Decreasing responsiveness to the effects of a drug in a drug classification (such as narcotics) and the likelihood of development of decreased responsiveness to another drug in that classification

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Cumulative Action

Increased intensity of drug action evident after administration of several doses

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Delayed reaction

A delay between exposure and onset of action

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Desired Action

The intended beneficial effect of a drug

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Diffusion

The passive transport of solutes (small particles)

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Distribution

The movement of drugs from the bloodstream to target organs

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Dosage

Administration of a therapeutic agent in prescribed amounts

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Dose

The exact amount of medication to be given or taken sat on time

32

Down Regulation

The process by which a cell decreases the number of receptors exposed to a given substance to reduce its sensitivity to that substance

33

Drug

Any substance (other than a food or device) intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, relief, treatment, or prevention of disease or intended to affect the structure or function of the body of human beings or animals

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Drug Allergy

The reaction to a medication with an adverse outcome

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Drug Dependence

A physical need or adaptation to the drug with or without the psychological need to take the drug

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Drug-Food Interaction

Changes in a drug's effects caused by food or beverages ingested during the same period

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Drug Interaction

The manner in which one drug and a second drug (or food) act on each other

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Effector

The muscle, gland, or organ on which the ANS exerts an effect; target organ

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Efficacy

The ability of a drug to produce a physiologic response after attaching to a receptor

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Elimination

The process of removing a drug from the body

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Elixir

A clear, oral solution that contains the drug, water, and some alcohol

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Emulsion

A water and oil mixture containing medication

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Endorphins

Neurotransmitters that function in the transmission of signals within the nervous system

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Enteral

A drug given for its systemic effects that passes through the digestive tract

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Enteric-Coated Tablets

Tablets that have a special coating so they break down in the intestines instead of the stomach

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Excretion

Same as Elimination

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Facilitated Transport

The transport of substances through a protein channel carrier with no energy input

48

First-Pass Effect

The breakdown of a drug in the liver and walls of the intestines before it reaches the systemic circulation

49

Formulary

A book that contains a list of medicinal substances with their formulas, uses, and methods of preparation

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Ganglion

The junction between the preganglionic and postganglionic nerves

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Gases

Substances inhaled and absorbed through the reparatory tract

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Gastric

The route used when a tube is placed into the digestive tract, such as a nasogastic, orogastic or gastrostomy tube

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Gel Cap

Soft gelatin shell filled with liquid medication

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Generic Name

The name proposed by the first manufacturer when a drug is submitted to the FDA for approval; often an abbreviated form of the drug's chemical name, structure, or formula

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Glycogenolysis

Breakdown of glycogen to glucose in the liver

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Gycoside

A compound that yields a sugar and one or more other products when its parts are separated

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Gum

Plant reside used for medicinal or recreational purposes

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Half-Life

The time required to eliminate half of a substance from the body

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Hypersensitivity

An altered reactivity to a medication that occurs after prior sensitization; response is independent of the dose

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Iatrogenic Drug Response

An unintentional disease or drug effect produced by a physician's prescribed therapy

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Idiosyncrasy

The unexpected and usually individual (genetic) adverse response to a drug

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Inhalation

A route in which the medication is aerosolized and delivered directly to the lung tissue

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Interference

The ability of one drug to limit the physiologic function of another drug

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Intracardiac

The injection of a drug directly into the heart

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Intradermal

Route of the infection of medication between the dermal layers of skin

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Intralingual

Direct injection into the underside of the tongue with a small volume of medication

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Intramuscular (IM)

An injection of medication directly into the muscle

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Intranasal

The route that offers direct delivery of medications into the nasal passages and sinuses

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Intraosseous

An administration route used in emergency situations when peripheral venous access is not established; a needle is passed through the cortex of the bone and the medication is infused into the capillary network within the bone matrix

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Intrathecal

The direct deposition of medication into the spinal canal

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Intravenous (IV)

Administration route offering instantaneous and nearly complete absorption through peripheral or central venous access

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Investigational Drug

A drug not yet approved by the FDA

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Local Effect

The effects of a drug at the site where the drug is applied or in the surrounding tissues

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Mechanism of Action

The manner in which a drug works to produce its intended effect

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Median lethal dose

The dose of a medication that kills 50% of the drug-tested population

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Metabolism

The chemical modification of the original drug

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Metabolites

The smaller molecules from the breakdown that occurs during metabolism

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Nasogastric

The administration route used when a nasogastric tube is in place. This bypasses the voluntary swallowing reflex

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Neuropeptide

A protein that may interact with a receptor after circulation through the blood

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Neurotransmitters

A chemical released from one nerve that crosses the synaptic clef to reach a receptor

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Nonproprietary Name

Generic name

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Official Name

A drug's name as listed in the United States Pharmacopoeia

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Oils

In medice, substances extracted from flowers, leaves, stems, roots, seeds, or bark for use in therapeutic treatments

84

Oral

A route of administration in which the medication is placed in the mouth and swallowed; the drug is absorbed through the GI tract

85

Orphan Drugs

Products developed for the diagnosis and/or treatment of rare diseases or conditions, such as sickle cell anemia and cystic fibrosis

86

Osmosis

The passive movement of water from a higher to a lower concentration

87

Parasympathetic Division

The division of the ANS responsible for the relaxed state of the body known as "feed and breed"

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Parasympatholytics

Drugs that block or inhibit the function of the parasympathetic receptors

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Parasympatomimetics

Drugs that mimic the parasympathetic division of the ANS

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Parenteral

Administration route used for systemic effects and given by a route other that the digestive tract

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Partial Agonist

A drug that when bound to a receptor may elicit a physiologic response, but it is less than that of an agonist; may also block the response of a competing agonist

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Passive Transport

The ability of a substance to traverse a barrier without any energy input; generally occurs from a higher to lower concentration

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Peripheral Nervous System

All the nerves outside the CNS

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Pharmaceutics

The science of preparing and dispensing drugs

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Pharmacogenetics

The study of inherited differences (variations) in drug metabolism and response

96

Pharmacokinetics

The process by which a drug is absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and eliminated by the body

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Pharmacology

The study of drugs, including their actions and effects on the host

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Pharmacopoeia

A book describing drugs, chemicals, and medicinal preparations in a country or specific geographic area, including a description of the drug its formula, and dosage.

99

Pill

Dried powder forms of medication in the form of a small pellet; the term pill has been replaced with tablet and capsule

100

Placental Barrier

Many layers of cells that form between maternal and fetal circulation that protect the fetus from toxins

101

Plasma Level Profile

The measurement of blood level of medication versus the dodge administered

102

Polypharmacy

The concurrent use of several medications

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Postganglionic Neuron

The nerve that travels from the ganglia to the desired organ or tissue

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Potentiation

A prolongation or increase in the effect of a drug by another drug

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Powder

Medication ground into a fine substance

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Preganglionic Neuron

The nerve that extends from the spinal cord (CNS) to the ganglion

107

Prodrug

A substance that is inactive when it is given and is converted to an active form within the body

108

Receptor

A molecule, such as a protein, found inside or on the surface of a cell that binds to a specific substance (such as hormones, antigens, drugs, or neurotransmitters) and causes a specific physiologic effect in the cell

109

Rectal

The drug administration route for suppositories; the drug is placed into the rectum (colon) and is absorbed into the venous circulation

110

Second Messenger

A molecule that relays signals from a receptor on the surface of the cell to target molecules in the cell's nucleus or internal fluid where a physiologic action is to take place; also called a biochemical messenger

111

Side effect

An effect of a drug other than the one for which it was given; may or may not be harmful

112

Solubility

Pertaining to the ease with which a drug can dissolve

113

Solution

A medication dissolved in a liquid, often water

114

Somatic Nervous System

Division of the peripheral nervous system whose motor nerves control movement of voluntary muscles

115

Spirit

A medication that contains volatile aromatic substances

116

Steady State

An evenly distributed concentration of a drug in the plasma

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Subcutaneous

Injection of medication in a liquid form underneath the skin into the subcutaneous tissue

118

Sublingual

Medication placed under the tongue

119

Summation

The combined effects of two or more drugs are equal to the sum of each of their effects

120

Suppository

Medications combined to make them solid at room temperature; when placed in a body opening such as the rectum, vagina or urethra, they dissolve because of the increase in body temperature an are absorbed through the surrounding mucosa

121

Suspension

Medication suspended in a liquid, such as an oral antibiotic

122

Sympathetic Division

The division of the ANS that prepares the body for stress or the classic fight-or-flight response

123

Sympatholytics

Drugs that block or inhibit adrenergic receptors

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Sympathomimetics

Drugs that mimic the sympathetic division of the ANS

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Synaptic Junction

The open space in which neurotransmitters traverse to reach a receptor

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Synergism

The interaction of drugs such the that the total effect is greater than the sum of the individual effects

127

Synthetic Drugs

Drugs chemically developed in a laboratory; also called manufactured drugs

128

Syrup

A medication dissolved in water with sugar or a sugar substitute to disguise taste

129

Systemic Effect

Drug action throughout the body

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Tablets

Medications that have been pressed into a small form that is easy to swallow. They are a specific shape, color and may have engravings for identifications

131

Tachyphylaxis

The raptly decreasing response to a drug or physiologically active agent after administration of a few doses; rapid cross tolerance

132

Teratogen

A drug or agent that is harmful to the development of an embryo or fetus

133

Therapeutic Dose

The dose required to produce an beneficial effect in 50% of the drug-tested population; also called effective dose

134

Therapeutic Threshold

The level of a drug that elicits a beneficial physiologic response

135

Tincture

A medicine consisting of an extract in an alcohol solution; examples include tincture of iodine, tincture of mercurochrome

136

Tolerance

Decreasing responsiveness to the effects of a drug; increasingly larger doses are necessary to achieve the effect originally obtained by a smaller dose

137

Topical

On the skin

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Trade Name

The name given a chemical compound by the company that makes it; also called the brand name or proprietary name

139

Transdermal

Through the skin

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Umbilical

An administration route that may be used on a newborn infant; because the umbilical cord was the primary source of nutrient and waste exchange, it provides an immediate source of drug exchange

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Upregulation

The process by which a cell increases the number of receptors exposed to a given substance to improve its sensitivity to that substance