Chapter 11: Cardiorespiratory Training-Programming and Progressions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11: Cardiorespiratory Training-Programming and Progressions Deck (37)
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1
Q

Fundamental Physiological Adaptations of the Muscular System

A
  • during low intensity endurance exercise, there are adaptations in the type I (slow muscle twitch) fibers
  • these involve increasing the size and number of the mitochondria within the cell to augment aerobic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation
  • there is a growth of more capillaries around the recruited muscle fibers, which enhances the delivery of oxygenated blood to the muscle fibers. If the recruitment is near the upper limit of a muscle fibers capacity to generate force, there may also be adaptions in the contractile mechanism (the actin and myosin filaments), leading to hypertrophy of those muscle fibers
  • during higher-intensity endurance, the type II (fast twitch) muscle fibers may be recruited. They adapt primarily by increasing the number of anaerobic enzymes so that anaerobic energy production will be enhanced (may also be hypertrophy of the contractile proteins within the muscle fiber)
2
Q

Fundamental Physiological Adaptations of the Cardiovascular System

A
  • due to expansion of blood volume that occurs with endurance training, the heart muscle will hypertrophy, enlarging its chambers and becoming a bigger and stronger muscle that is able to deliver a higher cardiac output to the muscle
  • these adaptions are primarily in the form of a larger stroke volume (amount of blood pumped per beat)
  • maximal heart rate (MHR) does not increase with training
  • increase in stroke volume is doe to chamber enlargement, greater amounts of chamber filling (end-diastolic volume), and greater chamber emptying (ejection fraction) of the heart with each beat
  • some evidence that redistribution of the cardiac output to the active muscles (via vasodilation) may improve after training, thus, making the increase in cardiac output more effective in terms of delivering oxygen where it is needed
3
Q

Fundamental Physiological Adaptations for Time Required for Anaerobic Power

A
  • VO2 Max increases with training, but reaches a peak and plateaus within about 6 months
  • changes in ventilatory threshold (VT), a significant marker of metabolism that permits prediction of lactate threshold (LT) from the minute ventilation (Ve) response during progressive exercise may continue for years. This change is attributed primarily to capillary growth and increase mitochondrial density (size and number) in active muscles
  • to support these cardiorespiratory adaptations, the capacity of the muscle to store additional glycogen increases and the ability to mobilize and use fatty acids as a fuel source is also enhanced
4
Q

Fundamental Physiological Adaptations to Steady-State and Interval-Based Training

A
  • primary adaptations to exercise training occur during steady state exercise at moderate intensity. Steady state refers to that intensity of exercise where the energy and physiological demands of the exercise bout are met by the delivery of the physiological systems in the body
  • at steady state, the rate of O2 uptake (VO2), HR, Cardiac output, ventilation, blood lactate concentration, and body temperature reach stable (although elevated) levels after a short period of exercise
  • when an exercise bout begins or intensity changes, the body takes between 45s and 3-4min to achieve steady state. The time needed to achieve this level (aka “second wind”) depends on the fitness level (fitter people get to it faster) and intensity (higher intensity require longer periods to achieve it)
  • interval training promotes similar or greater improvements in VO2 max and fitness than steady state exercise
  • intervals provide anaerobic adaptions to improve an individual’s tolerance for the buildup of lactate that may continue to increase leg after VO2 max adaptations have reached their maximal extent. This adaptation enhances one’s ability to sustain higher intensities of exercise for longer periods
5
Q

Fundamental Physiological Adaptations to Steady-State and Interval-Based Training

A
  • primary adaptations to exercise training occur during steady state exercise at moderate intensity. Steady state refers to that intensity of exercise where the energy and physiological demands of the exercise bout are met by the delivery of the physiological systems in the body
  • at steady state, the rate of O2 uptake (VO2), HR, Cardiac output, ventilation, blood lactate concentration, and body temperature reach stable (although elevated) levels after a short period of exercise
  • when an exercise bout begins or intensity changes, the body takes between 45s and 3-4min to achieve steady state. The time needed to achieve this level (aka “second wind”) depends on the fitness level (fitter people get to it faster) and intensity (higher intensity require longer periods to achieve it)
  • interval training promotes similar or greater improvements in VO2 max and fitness than steady state exercise
  • intervals provide anaerobic adaptions to improve an individual’s tolerance for the buildup of lactate that may continue to increase leg after VO2 max adaptations have reached their maximal extent. This adaptation enhances one’s ability to sustain higher intensities of exercise for longer periods
6
Q

Components of a Cardiorespiratory Workout Session: Warm-Up

A
  • lighter exercise performed for 5-10 minutes (start low to moderate and gradually increase intensity)
  • if there are higher-intensity intervals planned during the conditioning phase, the latter portion of the warmup could include some brief higher intensity exercise to prepare for that
  • general rule: the harder the conditioning phase, the more extensive the warm-up should be
7
Q

Components of a Cardiorespiratory Workout Session: Conditioning Phase

A
  • should be planned in terms of frequency, duration, intensity (steady state or interval formats), and modality
  • higher intensity elements should take place fairly early in this phase, and the session should be concluded with steady state exercise
  • cardiovascular drift: cardiovascular phenomenon that represents a gradual increase in HR response during a steady state bout of exercise. Causes for this include: 1. small reductions in blood volume that occur during exercise die to fluid lost to sweat and fluid moving into the spaces between cells, which results in a compensatory increase in HR to maintain cardiac output, offsetting the small decrease in stoke volume (Cardiac output= HR x stroke volume) 2. increasing core temperature that directs greater quantities of blood to the skin to facilitate heat loss, consequently decreasing decreasing blood return to the heart and blood available for the excessing muscles
  • aerobic interval training generally involves bouts of steady state performed at higher intensities for sustained periods (a min of 3min), followed by a return to lower aerobic intensities for the recovery interval (often utilize exercise-to-recovery ratios between 1:2 and 1:1- ex. a four minute steady followed by an 8 minute recovery with lower intensity when following a 1:2)
  • higher intensity intervals of 15-30s may recruit typeII muscle fibers
8
Q

Components of a Cardiorespiratory Workout Session: Cool-down

A
  • approx. same duration and intensity as warmup (5-10min of low to moderate intensity)
  • directed primarily toward preventing the tendency for blood to pool in the extremities, which may occur when exercise ends
  • lack of cool down can cause blood to accumulate in lower extremity after muscle pump, reducing blood flow back to heart and out to vital organs like the brain (which could cause lightheadedness)
  • active cool down helps remove metabolic waste from the muscles so that it can be metabolized by other tissues
  • stretching after this can improve flexibility
9
Q

General Guidelines for Cardiorespiratory Exercise For Health, Fitness, and Weight Loss: 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans by the US Department of Heath and Human Services

A
  • Specific guidelines for ages 18-64
    1. Perform 150min per week of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity or 75min per week of vigorous-intensity aerobic activity or a combo of both
    2. Additional health benefits are obtained from performing greater amounts of activity than those quantities
    3. Perform aerobic bouts that last at least 10min, preferably spread throughout the week
    4. Participate in muscle-strengthening activities involving all muscle major groups at least 2 days a week
  • Guidelines for children age 6 to 17
    1. Perform at least 60min of moderate to vigorous physical activity every day
    2. Include vigorous intensity activity a min of 3 days a week
    3. Participate in muscle-strengthening and bone-strengthening activity a min of 3 days a week
10
Q

General Guidelines for Cardiorespiratory Exercise For Health, Fitness, and Weight Loss: Physical activity guidelines from American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association

A

-use the FITT acronym to discuss cardiovascular programming guidelines (frequency, intensity, time (duration), type)-trainers should consider putting an E on the end to represent “enjoyable” or “experience”

11
Q

General Guidelines for Cardiorespiratory Exercise For Health, Fitness, and Weight Loss: Frequency

A
  • recommend physical activity for most days of the week
  • Moderate-intensity aerobic exercise (40% to 60% VO2 R or HRR)= min of 5 days a week
  • Vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise (greater than or equal to VO2 R or HRR)=min of 3 days a week
  • Combo of both= 3-5 days
12
Q

General Guidelines for Cardiorespiratory Exercise For Health, Fitness, and Weight Loss: Intensity and HR

A
  • measure intensity through HR (% MHR; %heart rate reserve HRR), RPE, VO2 or metabolic equivalents (METs), caloric expenditure, talk test/VT1, blood lactate and VT2
  • Note: can calculate MHR through 220-age, but factors can get in the way like genetics, exercise modality (can vary based on different machines and muscles used during them), medications, body size (MHR is generally higher in smaller people who have smaller hearts/lower stroke volumes), altitude (can lower MHR reached due to inability to reach higher intensity), age
  • better to use Gellish et al. formula 206.9-(0.67 x age) or Tanaka, Monahan, and Seals formula 208-(0.7 x age)
  • Recommended framework for exercise intensity for apparently healthy adults:
    1. Activity/Exercise Level: Sedentary/no habitual activity to exercise extremely deconditioned; Fitness Classification: Poor; %MHR 57-67%; %HRR/VO2 max or VO2R: 30-45%
    2. Activity/Exercise Level: Minimal activity/no exercise, moderately to highly deconditioned; Fitness Classification: Poor/Fair; %MHR 64-74%; %HRR/VO2 max or VO2R: 40-55%
    3. Activity/Exercise Level: Sporadic physical activity/no or suboptimal exercise, moderately to mildly deconditioned; Fitness Classification: Fair/Average; %MHR 74-84%; %HRR/VO2 max or VO2R: 55-70%
    4. Activity/Exercise Level: Habitual physical activity/regular moderate to vigorous intensity; Fitness Classification: Average/Good; %MHR 80-91%; %HRR/VO2 max or VO2R: 65-80%
    5. Activity/Exercise Level: High amounts of habitual activity/regular vigorous-intensity exercise; Fitness Classification: Good/Excellent; %MHR 84-94%; %HRR/VO2 max or VO2R: 70-85%
13
Q

General Guidelines for Cardiorespiratory Exercise For Health, Fitness, and Weight Loss: Karvonen Formula

A

-aka HR reserve formula

Target HR (THR) = (HRR x % Intensity) + RHR
Where: HRR = MHR - RHR
14
Q

General Guidelines for Cardiorespiratory Exercise For Health, Fitness, and Weight Loss: Ratings of Perceived Exertion

A

two scales to measure intensity subjectively

  1. the classical 6 to 20 scale
  2. more contemporary 0 to 10 scale
15
Q

General Guidelines for Cardiorespiratory Exercise For Health, Fitness, and Weight Loss: VO2 or metabolic equivalents

A

many studies have shown that there are minimal improvements in VO2max if the intensity of training is below a threshold of 40/50% of VO2max or VO2R (reserve)
-overall, its not not very effective to use this to measure intensity
-METs: multiples of an assumed average metabolic rate at rest of 3.5mL/kg/min (good to note, though, that not everyone’s rest rate is this)
Examples:
LIGHT (<3 METs)=
1. Walking-walking slowly around home or store
2. Household and occupation-sitting, light hand tools, standing doing light work, making bed, cooking, dishes, etc.
3. Leisure time and sports- arts and crafts, cards, boating, croquet, playing instruments
MODERATE (3-6 METs)
1. Walking- walking 3mph or briskly 4mph
2. Household and occupation-cleaning, heavy, washing windows/car/garage, sweeping floors, vacuuming, stacking wood, mowing lawn
3. Leisure time and sports-basketball (shooting around), dancing (ballroom), badminton, cycling on flat 10-12mph, table tennis
VIGOROUS (>6 METs)
1. Walking, jogging, and running-walking very, very brisk 4.5 mph, walking/hiking at moderate pace with or without light pack, hiking at steep grades, jogging at 5mph, at 6mph, running at 7mph
2. Household and occupation-shoveling sand, coal, carrying bricks, heavy farming, digging ditches
3. Leisure time and sports-basketball game, soccer, swimming, volleyball competitive

16
Q

General Guidelines for Cardiorespiratory Exercise For Health, Fitness, and Weight Loss:VT1

A

training below VT will not bring about significant improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness

17
Q

General Guidelines for Cardiorespiratory Exercise For Health, Fitness, and Weight Loss:Caloric Expenditure

A

-while number of calories produced per liter of O2 consumed varies according to fuel utilized (4.69 kcal per liter for fats and 5.05 for glucose/carbs), a value of 5 kcal per liter of O2 is sufficiently accurate since people burn a combo of fuels throughout their day
-usually calculated in terms of the gross or absolute VO2 during an activity by measuring or estimating the total quantity of O2 consumed is provided or measured in relative terms, this value must first be converted to gross or absolute terms to determine the total amount of O2 consumed before caloric value can be calculated
-use this formula:
Caloric expenditure =
[VO2 (mL/kg/min) x body weight (kg) / 1000] x 5 kcal/L/min
*convert pounds by dividing by 2.2 (1 kg = 2.2 lbs) and calculator link for VO2 is on page 407

18
Q

General Guidelines for Cardiorespiratory Exercise For Health, Fitness, and Weight Loss: Blood Lactate and VT2

A

-training zones 1 thru 3
Zone 1: (low to moderate exercise) reflects HRs below VT1
Zone 2: (moderate to vigorous exercise) reflects HR from VT1 to just below VT2
Zone 3: (vigorous to very vigorous exercise) reflects HR at or above VT2
-lactate is produced at a higher rate as exercise intensity increases…at approx. 50% of an individual’s power output during incremental exercise, the ability to remove lactate from the circulation starts to become limited, and a net accumulation of lactate in blood begins (VT1) because of the need to prevent the accumulation of lactate form causing disturbances in the blood pH balance of the body, the ace associated with lactate is buffered by bicarbonate buffering system in the blood-this produces extra CO2 which causes the increase in breathing (VT1)

19
Q

General Guidelines for Cardiorespiratory Exercise For Health, Fitness, and Weight Loss: Duration

A
  • Moderate-intensity exercise or activity performed for at least 30min a session, a min of 5 days per week for a total of 150min per week
  • vigorous-intensity exercise or activity performed for at least 20-25min a session, min of 3 days per week for a total of 75min per week
  • combo of both (ex. 20-30min of moderate to vigorous exercise or activity performed three to five days per week)
  • overweight and obese individuals or those seeking to manage their weight should perform 50 to 60min of moderate intensity exercise or activity each day, five to seven days a week, for a total of 300min
  • a total of 150min of vigorous exercise or activity per week, performed a minimum of three days a week
  • a combo of last two points
  • Note some beginners won’t be able to do 30min of that or the frequency. Exercise can be performed in multiple sessions of 10 or more minutes to accumulate desired duration and volume of exercise per day
20
Q

General Guidelines for Cardiorespiratory Exercise For Health, Fitness, and Weight Loss: Exercise progression

A

Basic Training principles for Progression:

  1. The principle of overload states that when additional stresses are placed on the organs or systems (cardiorespiratory and muscular) in a timely and appropriate manner, physiological adaptations and improvement will occur. The rate of progression in a program depends on the individual’s current conditioning level, program goals, and tolerance for the slight discomfort associated with raising training load or volume
  2. Principle of specificity states that the physiological adaptations made within the body are specific to demands placed on that body-sometimes referred to as SAID (specific adaptations to the imposed demands. So it really depends on the goals of the client and what they want to work towards.
    - Duration is the most appropriate variable to manipulate initially, building the exercise session by 10%, or 5020min every week or two over the first 4-6 weeks. Then once adherence is developed, trainers can implement progressions by increasing exercise frequency and then exercise intensity, but the the progressions should always remain consistent with the client’s goals
21
Q

General Guidelines for Cardiorespiratory Exercise For Health, Fitness, and Weight Loss: Fartlek training

A
  • came from a Swedish term that means “speed play”
  • this training format is more sporadic, with various speeds/paces alternating between fast segments and slow jogs (mimicking the changes of pace that happened during intermittent sports (like rugby, soccer, football, hockey, and lacrosse), pace changes based on how the body feels (exerciser can experiment with pace and endurance
22
Q

Modes or Types of Cardiorespiratory Exercise: Physical Activities that promote improvement of maintenance of cardiorespiratory fitness

A
  1. Endurance activities requiring minimal skill or fitness: walking, slow-dancing, recreational cycling or swimming
  2. Vigorous-intensity endurance activities requiring minimal skill: jogging, rowing, elliptical training, stepping, indoor cycling, fast-dancing
  3. Endurance activities requiring higher skill levels: swimming, cross-country skiing
  4. Recreational sports: soccer, basketball, racquet sports
23
Q

Modes or Types of Cardiorespiratory Exercise: Equipment-based cardiovascular exercise

A

can include treadmills, cycle ergometers, elliptical machines, rowing machines, arm ergometers

24
Q

Modes or Types of Cardiorespiratory Exercise: Group Exercise

A

intensity varies enormously
varied types of music played (exercisers will likely follow the tempo or beat of the muscle, so think about tempo for intensity)

25
Q

Modes or Types of Cardiorespiratory Exercise: Circuit Training

A
  • improvements in aerobic power typically average only 5 to 7% with just resistance training circuits
  • super circuits (Orange Theory) are better
26
Q

Modes or Types of Cardiorespiratory Exercise: Outdoor Exercise

A

walking, running, climbing, canoeing

27
Q

Modes or Types of Cardiorespiratory Exercise: Seasonal Exercise

A

provides variation

28
Q

Modes or Types of Cardiorespiratory Exercise: Water-based exercise

A
  • reduces orthopedic loading and capable of training different muscle groups
  • swimming, water aerobics, water polo, water volleyball
  • particularly valuable for obese or older adults or the who have orthopedic issues
29
Q

Modes or Types of Cardiorespiratory Exercise: Mind-body exercise

A

not associated with high intensity aerobic training, but may provide an intensity comparable to walking
-pilates, haha yoga, and tai chi

30
Q

Modes or Types of Cardiorespiratory Exercise: Lifestyle Exercise

A

what you do in the home can even give you the exercise you need that is at least comparable to walking

31
Q

Cardiorespiratory Training Phases: Phase 1-Aerobic Base Training

A
  1. focus is on creating positive exercise experiences that help sedentary clients become regular exercisers
  2. No fitness assessments are required prior to exercise in this phase
  3. Focus on steady-state exercise in zone 1 (below HR at VT1)-for as little as 10-15min, 2-3 times a week and then progress to 30min at moderate intensity at least 5 times a week-should not exceed a 10% increase each week
  4. Gauge by client’s ability to talk below talk test threshold and/or RPE of 3 to 4 (moderate to somewhat hard)
  5. Progress to phase 2 once the client can sustain steady-state cardiorespiratory exercise for 20-30min in zone 1 (RPE 3-4) and is comfortable with assessments
    * Observe table 11-10 for reference
32
Q

Cardiorespiratory Training Phases: Phase 2- Aerobic-efficiency Training

A
  1. the focus is on increasing the duration of exercise and introducing intervals to improve aerobic efficiency, fitness and health
  2. Administer the sub maximal talk test to determine HR at VT1. There is no need to measure VT2
  3. Warm up/cooldown/recovery intervals/steady state exercise should be performed at or just below VT1 HR (3-4 on the 0-10 scale), so there’s an increase workload at VT1 (increase HR at VT1), then introduce low zone 2 intervals just above VT1 (RPE of 5) to improve anaerobic efficiency and add variety in programming
  4. Progress low zone 2 intervals by increasing the time of the work interval and later decreasing the recovery interval time-so start with brief intervals of 60s with an approx. hard-to-easy ratio of 1:3 (60s work interval followed by 180s recovery interval), eventually progressing to a ratio of 1:2 and then 1:1 (according to client’s desires)- increased no more than 10% each week and the beginning of these intervals should be infrequent
  5. As client progresses, introduce intervals in the upper end of zone 2 (RPE 6) at 1:3 work to recovery ratio progressing first to longer intervals and then to intervals 1:1
  6. Many clients will stay in this zone for years
  7. If a client has event-specific goals or is a fitness enthusiast looking for increased challenges and fitness gains or works out in cardio seven more more hours a week, progress to phase 3 (can perform brief intervals of 30s that go just above VT2 (RPE of 7) to further further develop aerobic power and provide additional variety)
    * Observe Table 11-11
33
Q

Cardiorespiratory Training Phases: Phase 3- Anaerobic-endurance Training

A
  1. The focus is on designing programs to help clients who have endurance performance goals and/or are performing seven or more ours of cardiorespiratory exercise per week
  2. Administer the VT2 threshold test to determine HR at VT2, and then note the bpm for reach zone 1 (at or below VT1: RPE 3-4), 2 (just above VT1: RPE 5 or 6), 3 (just above VT2: RPE 7)
  3. Programs will have the majority of cardio respiratory training time in zone 1 (70-80%)
  4. interval and higher-intensity sessions will be very focused in zones 2 (less than 10%) and 3 (10-20%), but will make up only a small amount of training time to allow for adaptation to the total training load
    * Ways to avoid burnout: distribute zone 1 training time across warm ups, cool downs, moderate-intensity workouts focused on increasing distance and/or exercise time, recovery intervals following zone 2 and 3 work intervals, and recovery workouts on days following high-intensity workouts
  5. Many clients will never train in phase 3, as all of their non competitive fitness goals can be achieved through phase 2 training
  6. Only clients who have very specific goals for increasing speed for short bursts at near-maximal efforts during endurance or athletic competitions will move on to phase 4
    * Program Design: highly fit clients with adequate recovery time may be able to successfully complete and recover from 3-4 workouts with zone 2 or 3 intervals during weeks where the goal is to increase load; client who is not highly fit and has minimal recovery time should have only one or two total zone 2 or 3 interval days; recreation level will perform most of training in zone 1 with maybe 1 zone 3 training session a week
    * “Rule of threes:” should progressively increase by 10% each week until the total volume reaches a maximum of three times the anticipated duration of the target event for which the exerciser is training (for a 1-mile race, client might do about 2.5 times the racing distance (performing 10x400m intervals a week)
    * Table 11-12
34
Q

Cardiorespiratory Training Phases: Phase 4- Anaerobic-power Training

A
  1. The focus is on improving anaerobic power to improve phosphates energy pathways and buffer large accumulations of lactate in order to improve speed for short bursts at near-maximal efforts during endurance or athletic competitions
  2. Programs will have similar distribution to phase 3 training times in zones 1, 2, and 3
  3. Zone 3 training will include very intense anaerobic-power intervals (RPE 9 to 10), and are followed by long recovery intervals that may be 10-20 times longer than wok intervals
  4. Clients will generally only work in phase 4 during specific training cycles prior to competition
35
Q

Importance of Recovery and Regeneration

A
  • training should be periodized (regular cycle of hard and easy days, weeks, and months)
  • the more challenging the program, the more recovery and regeneration becomes important
  • biggest mistake is to take too few recovery days, to try to do something other than recover on the recovery days, and try to progress the training load on recovery days
  • there should be no more than 4 hard-training days per week, no matter the level
36
Q

Special Considerations for Youth

A
  1. Overspecialization: lightly structured activity every day for preferably more than an hour…not necessarily exercise, but practice a variety of activities that promote motor skills and fitness in a general sense; after puberty, this needs to become more of an intentional priority (can increase in athletes and decrease in non athletes); as general and diverse as possible (within zone 1)
  2. Orthopedic trauma: skeletons are still maturing, so very heavy loads may provide challenges to energy balance and bone/joint integrity
37
Q

Special Considerations for Older Adults

A
  1. Cardiovascular risk: first presentation of cardiovascular disease is fatal in approx. 35% of men and 17% of women (triggering event for myocardial infarction is often unaccustomed heavy exercise in sedentary people, the Framingham data suggests those leading exercise for men (over 45) and women (over 55) should behave as if there is an underlying heart disease (so restrictive them for low-intensity (zone 1) for the first several weeks of exercise; PT needs to take a careful health history and keep it in each client’s file-if there’s any risk stated, send them to physician
  2. Orthopedic risk: may have lost elasticity from the musculotendinous system or have reduced bone mineral density (particularly women), so they are typically less tolerant of heavy loads, rapid increases in training load, simple-mode exercise, and stop-and-go activities
  3. Preservation of muscle tissue: beyond about the age of 50, there’s a tendency for people to lose muscle mass (sarcopenia)-especially prominent in women since they don’t have enough testosterone to support muscle mass, and there is a decrease in test in men, too-need exercise to support muscle mass, muscular strength, and balance (can be performed as a brief addition after the main body of the cardiorespiratory training bout (half a dozen exercises performed either against body weight or with light dumbbells or resistance bands/tubes
  4. The rate at which older individuals adapt to training: intense training can cause micro damage to body-not good to do more than 2 hard or long training sessions per week