Flashcards in Chapter 11- One Way ANOVA Deck (31):

1

## When will the F- distribution approach normal distribution?

### The F distribution will approach normal distribution when there are large samples sizes

2

## What other distribution is like the F-distribution?

### The F distribution is like the T when there are only 2 samples

3

## What is the F-statistic?

### The F-Statistic is a ratio of two measures of variability

4

## What are the two measures of variability with the F statistic?

### Between-groups and within-groups

5

## What is between-groups variance?

### Between groups is the estimate of the population variance based on the spread between group means

6

## What is within-groups variance?

### Within groups variance estimate of the population variance based on the average variability within each group

7

## How is the F-statistic calculated?

### The F-statistic is calculated by dividing the between groups variance by the within groups variance

8

## How do you increase the F-statistic?

### The F statistic can be increased by increasing the variability between means or decreasing the variability within groups

9

## What is a one-way ANOVA?

### One nominal independent variable with more than 2 levels, scale dependent variable

10

## What is a One Way Within Groups ANOVA?

### One Way Within Groups ANOVA is more than 2 samples, composed of the same participants. Also called repeated measures

11

## What is a One Way Within Groups ANOVA?

### One Way Between Groups ANOVA is more than 2 samples, each composed of different people.

12

## What are the assumptions of an ANOVA?

### Random and independent, population distribution of dependent variable is normally distributed, and samples come from populations with same variance (homoscedasticity)

13

## What is heteroscedasticity?

### Heteroscedasticity is when samples come from different variances

14

## What are the 6 steps of ANOVA Hypothesis Testing?

###
1. Identify pops, distributions, and ck assumptions

2. State null and research/alternative hypothesis

3. Determine characteristics of null distribution

4. Determine Critical Values

5. Calculate test statistic

6. Make a decision

15

## How do you calculate the dfbetween?

### Calculate the number of groups-1

16

## How do you calculate the dfwithin?

### Calculate the total number of participants - the number of groups

17

## How do you calculate the dftotal?

### Calculate the total participants-1

18

## What is the MS and how do you get this number?

### Mean Square. It is the SS divided by the degrees of freedom

19

## What is the SS?

### The SS is the sum of squares; its the sum of deviation scores squared

20

## What is the SS total?

### The SS total is the sum of all squares ignoring the separate groups

21

## How do you calculate the MS between?

### The MS between is calculated by dividing the SS between by the dfbetween

22

## How do you calculate the MS within?

### The MS within is calculated by dividing the SSwithin by the dfwithin

23

## How do you calculate the F statistic after calculating the MS between and the MS within?

### The F statistic is calculated by dividing the MS between by the MSwithin

24

## What formula is used to calculate effect for ANOVAs?

### R2

25

## What is the R2 and what are the sizes?

### R2 is the proportion of variance in the dependent variable that is accounted for by the independent variable. You can convert this amount to a percentage. The sizes are sm= .01, med=.06, and large is .014

26

## What happens when multiple comparisons are made?

### The more comparisions we do, the more likely we mare going to make a type 1 error

27

## What is a post hoc test?

### A post hoc test is a test used to compare multiple groups (two at a time)

28

## What does the post hoc test protect from?

### A post hoc test protects from inflating a type 1 error

29

## When is a post hoc test conducted?

### A post hoc test is only conducted if the overall F test is signifigant

30

## What is the name of the most common post hoc test?

### Tukey HSD

31