Chapter 11 - Principles of Pharmacology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11 - Principles of Pharmacology Deck (50):
1

Absorption

The process by which medications travel through the body tissues until they reach the bloodstream.

2

Action

The therapeutic effect of a medication on the body.

3

Activated charcoal

The oral medication that binds and absorbed ingested toxins in the gastrointestinal tract for treatment of some poisonings and medication overdoses. Charcoal is ground into very fine powder that provides the greatest possible surface area for binding medications that have been taken by mouth; it is carried on the EMS unit.

4

Adsorption

The process of binding or sticking to a surface.

5

Agonist

A medication that causes stimulation of receptors.

6

Antagonist

A medication that binds to a receptor and blocks other medications.

7

Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid or ASA)

A medication that is an antipyretic (reduces fever), analgesic (reduces pain), anti-inflammatory (reduces inflammation), and a potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation (clumping).

8

Contraindications

Conditions that make a particular medication or treatment in appropriate because it would not help, or may actually harm, a patient.

9

Dose

The amount of medication given on the basis of the patient's size and age.

10

EMT-administered medication

Administration of a medication by the EMT directly to the patient.

11

Enteral medications

Medications that enter the body through the digestive system.

12

Epinephrine

A medication that increases heart rate and blood pressure but also eases breathing problems by decreasing muscle tone of the bronchiole tree.

13

Gel

A semiliquid substance that is administered orally in capsule form or through plastic tubes

14

Generic name

The original chemical name of a medication (in contrast with one of its proprietary or "trade"names); the name is not capitalized.

15

Hypoglycemia

An abnormally low blood glucose level.

16

Indications

The therapeutic uses for a specific medication.

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Inhalation

Breathing into the lungs; a medication delivery route.

18

Intramuscular (IM) injection

An injection into a muscle; a medication delivery route.

19

Intranasal (IN)

A delivery route in which a medication is pushed through a specialized automizer device called a mucosal automizer device (MAD) into the naris.

20

Intraosseous (IO) injection

An injection into the bone; a medication delivery route.

21

Intravenous (IV) injection

An injection directly into a vein; a medication delivery route.

22

Medication

A substance that is used to treat or prevent disease or relieve pain.

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Medication error

Inappropriate use of a medication that could lead to patient harm.

24

Metered-dose inhaler (MDI)

A miniature spray canister through which droplets or particles of medication may be inhaled.

25

Mucosal automizer device (MAD)

A device that is used to change a liquid medication into a spray and push it into a nostril.

26

Nitroglycerin

A medication that increases cardiac perfusion by causing blood vessels to dilate; EMTs may be allowed to to assist the patient to self administer the medication.

27

Oral

By mouth; a medication delivery route.

28

Oral glucose

A simple sugar that is readily absorbed by the bloodstream; it is carried on the EMS unit.

29

Over-the-counter (OTC) medications

Medications that may be purchased directly by a patient without a prescription.

30

Oxygen

A gas that all cells need for metabolism; the heart and brain, especially, cannot function without oxygen.

31

Parenteral medications

Medications that enter the body by a route other than the digestive tract, skin, or mucous membranes.

32

Patient-assisted medication

When the EMT assists the patient with the administration of his or her own medication.

33

Peer-assisted medication

When the EMT administers medication to him or herself or to a partner.

34

Per os (PO)

Through the mouth; a medication delivery route; same as oral.

35

Per rectum (PR)

Through the rectum; a medication delivery route.

36

Pharmacodynamics

The process by which a medication works on the body.

37

Pharmacology

The study of the properties and effects of medications.

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Polypharmacy

The use of multiple medications on a regular basis.

39

Prescription medications

Medications that are distributed to patients only by pharmacist according to a physician's order.

40

Side effects

Any effects of the medication other than the desired ones.

41

Solution

A liquid mixture that cannot be separated by filtering or allowing the mixture to stand.

42

Subcutaneous (SC) injection

Injection into the fatty tissue between the skin and muscle; a medication delivery route.

43

Sublingual (SL)

Under the tongue; a medication delivery route.

44

Suspension

A mixture of ground particles that are distributed evenly throughout a liquid but do not dissolve.

45

Therapeutic effect

The desired or intended effect a medication is expected to have on the body.

46

Topical medications

Lotions, creams, and ointments that are applied to the surface of the skin and affect only that area; a medication delivery route.

47

Trade name

The brand-name that a manufacturer gives a medication; the name is capitalized.

48

Transcutaneous (transdermal)

Through the skin; a medication delivery route.

49

Unintended effects

Actions that are undesirable but propose little risk to the patient.

50

Untoward effects

Actions that can be harmful to the patient.