Chapter 6 - The Human Body Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 - The Human Body Deck (214):
1

Abdomen

The body cavity that contains the major organs of digestion an excretion. It is located below the diaphragm and above the pelvis.

2

Acetabulum

The depression on the lateral pelvis where it's three component bones join, in which the femoral head fits snuggly.

3

Adam's apple

A firm prominence of cartilage that forms the upper part of the larynx. It is more prominent in men than women. Also called the thyroid cartilage.

4

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

The nucleotide involved in energy metabolism; used to store energy.

5

Adrenal glands

Endocrine glands located on top of the kidneys that release adrenaline when stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system.

6

Adrenergic

Pertaining to nerves that release the neurotransmitter norepinephrine, or noradrenaline (such as adrenergic nerves, a adrenergic response); also pertains to the receptors acted on by norepinephrine.

7

Aerobic metabolism

Metabolism that can proceed only in the presence of oxygen.

8

Agonal gasps

Abnormal breathing pattern characterized by slow, gasping breaths, sometimes seen in patients in cardiac arrest.

9

Alpha-adrenergic receptors

Portions of the nervous system that, when stimulated, can cause constriction of blood vessels.

10

Alveoli

The air sacs of the lungs in which the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place.

11

Anaerobic metabolism

The metabolism that takes place in the absence of oxygen; the main byproduct is lactic acid.

12

Anatomic position

The position of reference in which the patient stands facing forward, arms at the side, with the palms of the hands forward.

13

Aorta

The main artery leaving the left side of the heart and caring freshly oxygenated blood to the body.

14

Appendicular skeleton

The portion of the skeletal system that comprises the arms, legs, pelvis, and shoulder girdle.

15

Appendix

A small, tubular structure that is attached to the lower border of the cecum in the lower right quadrant of the abdomen.

16

Arterioles

The smallest branches of arteries leading to the vast network of capillaries.

17

Articular cartilage

A pearly layer of specialized cartilage covering the articular surfaces (contact surfaces on the ends) of bones in synovial joints.

18

Atrium

One of the two upper chambers of the heart.

19

Autonomic nervous system

The part of the nervous system that regulates functions, such as digestion and sweating, that are not controlled voluntarily.

20

Axial skeleton

The part of the skeleton comprising the skull, spinal column, and rib cage.

21

Ball-and-socket joint

A joint that allows internal and external rotation, as well as bending.

22

Beta-adrenergic receptors

Portions of the nervous system that, when stimulated, can cause an increase in the force of contraction of the heart, and increased heart rate, and bronchial dilation.

23

Biceps

The large muscle that covers the front of the humerus.

24

Bile ducts

The ducts that convey bile between the liver and the intestines.

25

Blood pressure (BP)

The pressure that the blood exerts against the walls of the arteries as it passes through them.

26

Brachial artery

The major vessel in the upper extremities that supplies blood to the arm.

27

Brain

The controlling organ of the body and the center of consciousness; functions include perception, control of reactions to the environment, emotional responses, and judgment.

28

Brain stem

The area of the brain between the spinal cord and cerebrum, surrounded by the the cerebellum; controls the functions that are necessary for life, such as respiration.

29

Capillary vessels

The tiny blood vessel's between the arterioles and venues that permit transfer of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and waste between body tissues and the blood.

30

Cardiac muscle

The heart muscle.

31

Cardiac output (CO)

A measure of the volume of blood circulated by the heart in one minute, calculated by multiplying the stroke volume by the heart rate.

32

Carotid artery

The major artery that supplies blood to the head and brain.

33

Cartilage

The smooth connective tissue that forms the support structure of the skeletal system and provides cushioning between bones; also forms the nasal septum and portions of the outer ear.

34

Cecum

The first part of the large intestine, into which the ileum opens.

35

Central nervous system (CNS)

The brain and spinal cord.

36

Cerebellum

One of the three major subdivisions of the brain, sometimes called the little brain; coordinates the various activities of the brain, particularly fine body movements.

37

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

Fluid produced in the ventricles of the brain that flows in the subarachnoid space and bathes in meninges.

38

Cerebrum

The largest part of the three subdivisions of the brain, sometimes called the gray matter; made up of several lobes that control movement, hearing, balance, speech, visual perception, emotions, and personality.

39

Cervical spine

The portion of the spinal column consisting of the first seven vertebrae that lie in the neck.

40

Chordae tendineae

Thin bands of ginormous tissue that attach to the valves in the heart and prevent them from inverting.

41

Chyme

The substance that leaves the stomach. It is a combination of all the eaten foods with added stomach acids.

42

Circulatory system

The complex arrangement of connected tubes, including the arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venues, and veins, that moves blood, oxygen, nutrients, carbon dioxide, and cellular waste throughout the body.

43

Clavicle

The collar bone; it is lateral to the sternum and anterior to the scapula.

44

Coccyx

The last three or four vertebrae of the spine; the tail bone.

45

Coronal plane

An imaginary plane where the body is divided into front and back parts.

46

Cranium

The area of the head above the ears and eyes; the skull. The cranium contains the brain.

47

Cricoid cartilage

A firm ridge of cartilage that forms the lower part of the larynx.

48

Cricothyroid membrane

A thin sheet of fascia that connects the thyroid and the cricoid cartilages that make up the larynx.

49

Dead space

Any portion of the airway that does contain air and cannot participate in gas exchange, such as the trachea and bronchi.

50

Dermis

The inner layer of the skin, containing hair follicles, sweat glands, nerve endings, and blood vessels.

51

Diaphragm

A muscular dome that forms the undersurface of the thorax l, separating the chest from the abdominal cavity. Contraction of this (and the chest wall muscles) brings air into the lungs. Relaxation allows air to be expelled from the lungs.

52

Diastole

The relaxation, or period of relaxation, of the heart, especially of the ventricles.

53

Diffusion

Movement of a gas from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.

54

Digestion

The processing of food that nourishes the individual cells of the body.

55

Dorsalis pedis artery

The artery on the anterior surface of the foot between the first and second metatarsals.

56

Endocrine system

The complex message and control system that integrates many body functions, including the release of hormones.

57

Enzymes

Substances designed to speed up the rate of specific biochemical reactions.

58

Epidermis

The outer layer of skin, which is made up of cells that are sealed together to form a water tight protective covering for the body.

59

Epiglottis

A thin, leaf shaped valve that allows air to pass into the trachea but prevents food and liquid from entering.

60

Epinephrine

A hormone produced by the adrenal medulla that has a vital role in the function of the sympathetic nervous system.

61

Esophagus

A collapsible tube that extends from the pharynx to the stomach; muscle contractions propel food and liquids through it to the stomach.

62

Exploratory reserve volume

The amount of air that can be exhaled following a normal exhalation; average volume is about 1,200 mL in the average adult man.

63

Extension

The straightening of a joint.

64

Fallopian tubes

Long, slender tubes that extend from the uterus to the region of the ovary on the same side and through which the ovum passes from the ovary to the uterus.

65

Femoral artery

The major artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery. It supplies blood to the lower of abdominal wall, external genitalia, and legs. It can be palpated in the groin area.

66

Femoral head

The proximal end of the femur, articulating with the acetabulum to form the hip joint.

67

Femur

The thigh bone; the longest and one of the strongest bones in the body.

68

Flexion

The bending of a joint.

69

Foramen magnum

A large opening at the base of the skull through which the brain connects to the spinal cord.

70

Frontal bone

The portion of the cranium that forms the forehead.

71

Gallbladder

A sac on the undersurface of the liver that collects bile from the liver and discharges it into the duodenum through the common bile duct.

72

Genital system

The reproductive system in men and women.

73

Germinal layer

The deepest layer of the epidermis were new skin cells are formed.

74

Greater trochanter

A bony prominence on the proximal lateral side of the thigh, just below the hip joint.

75

Hair follicles

The small organs that produce hair.

76

Heart

A hollow muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body.

77

Heart rate (HR)

The number of heartbeats during a specific time (usually one minute.)

78

Hinge joints

Joints that can bend and straighten but cannot rotate; they restrict motion to one plane.

79

Hormones

Substances formed in specialized organs or glands and carried to another organ or group of cells in the same organism; they regulate many body functions, including metabolism, growth, and body temperature.

80

Humerus

The supporting bone of the upper arm.

81

Hydrostatic pressure

The pressure of water against the walls of its container.

82

Hypoxic drive

A "back up system" to control respiration; senses drops in the oxygen level in the blood.

83

Ilium

One of three bones that fuse to form the pelvic ring.

84

Inferior vena cava

One of the two largest veins in the body; carries blood from the lower extremities and the pelvic and the abdominal organs to the heart.

85

Inspiratory reserve volume

The amount of air that can be inhaled after a normal inhalation; the amount of air that can be inhaled in addition to the normal tidal volume.

86

Interstitial space

The space in between the cells.

87

Involuntary muscle

The muscle over which a person has no conscious control. It is found in many automatic regulating systems of the body.

88

Ischium

One of three bones that fuse to form the pelvic ring.

89

Joint (articulation)

The place where two bones come into contact.

90

Joint capsule

The fibrous sac that encloses a joint.

91

Kidneys

Two retroperitoneal organs that excrete the end products of metabolism as urine and regulate the body's salt and water content.

92

Labored breathing

The use of muscles of the chest, back, and abdomen to assist in expanding the chest; occurs when air movement is impaired.

93

Lactic acid

A metabolic byproduct of the breakdown of glucose that accumulates when the metabolism proceeds in the absence of oxygen (anaerobic metabolism.)

94

Large intestine

The portion of the digestive tube that encircles the abdomen around the small bowel, consisting of the cecum, the colon, and the rectum. It helps regulate water balance and eliminate solid waste.

95

Lesser trochanter

The projection on the medial/superior portion of the femur.

96

Ligament

A band of fibrous tissue that connects bones to bones. It supports and strengthens a joint.

97

Liver

A large, solid organ that lies in the right upper quadrant immediately below the diaphragm; it produces bile, stores glucose for immediate use by the body, and produces many substances that help regulate immune responses.

98

Lumbar spine

The lower part of the back, formed by the lowest five nonfused vertebrae; also called the dorsal spine.

99

Lymph

A thin, straw-colored fluid that carries oxygen, nutrients, and hormones to the cells and carries waste products of metabolism away from the cells and back into the capillaries so that they may be excreted.

100

Lymph nodes

Tiny, oval-shaped structures located in various places along the lymph vessels that filter lymph.

101

Mandible

The bone of the lower jaw.

102

Manubrium

The upper quarter of the sternum.

103

Maxillae

The upper jaw bones that assist in the formation of the orbit, the nasal cavity, and the palate and hold the upper teeth.

104

Medulla oblongata

Nerve tissue that is continuous inferiorly with the spinal cord; serves as a conduction pathway for ascending and descending nerve tracts; coordinates heart rate, blood vessel diameter, breathing, swallowing, vomiting, coughing, and sneezing.

105

Metabolism (cellular respiration)

The biochemical process that results in production of energy from nutrients within cells.

106

Midbrain

The part of the brain that is responsible for helping to regulate the levels of consciousness.

107

Midsagittal plane (midline)

An imaginary vertical line drawn from the middle of the forehead through the nose and the umbilicus (navel) to the floor, dividing the body into equal left and right halves.

108

Minute volume

The volume of air that moves in and out of the lungs per minute; calculated by multiplying the tidal volume and respiratory rate; also called minute ventilation.

109

Motor nerves

Nerves that carry information from the central nervous system to the muscles of the body.

110

Mucous membranes

The lining of body cavities and passages that communicate directly or indirectly with the environment outside the body.

111

Mucus

The watery secretion of the mucous membranes that lubricates the body openings.

112

Musculoskeletal system

The bones and voluntary muscles of the body.

113

Myocardium

The heart muscle.

114

Nasopharynx

The part of the pharynx that lies above the level of the roof of the mouth, or palate.

115

Nervous system

The system that controls virtually all activities of the body, both voluntary and involuntary.

116

Norepinephrine

A neurotransmitter and drug sometimes used in the treatment of shock; produces vasoconstriction through its alpha-stimulator properties.

117

Occiput

The most posterior portion of the cranium.

118

Oncotic pressure

The pressure of water to move, typically into the capillary, as a result of the presence of plasma proteins.

119

Orbit

The eye socket, made up of the maxilla and zygoma.

120

Oropharynx

Tubular structure that extends vertically from the back of the mouth to the esophagus and trachea.

121

Ovaries

Female glands that produces sex hormones and ova (eggs).

122

Pancreas

A flat, solid organ that lies below the liver and the stomach; it is a major source of digestive enzymes and produces the hormone insulin.

123

Parasympathetic nervous system

A subdivision of the automatic nervous system, involved in control of involuntary functions, mediated largely by the vagus nerve through the chemical acetylcholine.

124

Parietal bones

The bones that lie between the temporal and occipital regions of the cranium.

125

Patella

The kneecap; a specialized bone that lies within the tendon of the quadriceps muscle.

126

Pathophysiology

The study of how normal physiological processes are affected by disease.

127

Perfusion

The circulation of oxygenated blood within an organ or tissue in adequate amounts to meet the cells current needs.

128

Peripheral nervous system (PNS)

The part of the nervous system that consist of 31 pairs of spinal nerves and 12 pairs of cranial nerves; these may be sensory nerves, motor nerves, or connecting nerves.

129

Peristalsis

The wave like contraction of smooth muscle by which the ureters or other tubular organs propel their contents.

130

Plasma

A sticky, yellow fluid that carries the blood cells and nutrients and transports cellular waste material to the organs of excretion.

131

Platelets

Tiny, disc-shaped elements that are much smaller than the cells; they are essential in the initial formation of a blood clot, the mechanism that stops bleeding.

132

Pleura

The serous membranes covering the lungs and lining the thorax, completely enclosing a potential space known as the pleural space.

133

Pleural space

The potential space between the parietal pleura and the visceral pleura; described as "potential" because under normal conditions, the space does not exist.

134

Pons

An organism that lies below the midbrain and above the medulla and contains numerous important nerve fibers, including those for sleep, respiration, and the medullary respiratory center.

135

Posterior tibial artery

The artery just behind the medial malleolus; supplies blood to the foot.

136

Prostate gland

A small gland that surrounds the male urethra where it emerges from the urinary bladder; it secretes a fluid that is part of the ejaculatory fluid.

137

Pubic symphysis

A hard, bony, and cartilaginous prominence found out the midline in the lowermost portion of the abdomen where the two halves of the pelvic ring are joined by cartilage at a joint with minimal motion.

138

Pubis

One of the three bones that fuse to form the pelvic ring.

139

Pulmonary artery

The major artery leading from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs; carries oxygen-poor blood.

140

Pulmonary circulation

The flow of blood from the right ventricle through the pulmonary arteries and all of their branches and capillaries in the lungs and back to the left atrium through the venules and pulmonary veins; also called the lesser circulation.

141

Pulmonary veins

The four veins that return oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.

142

Pulse

The wave of pressure created as the heart contracts and forces blood out the left ventricle and into the major arteries.

143

Radial artery

The major artery in the forearm; it is palpable at the wrist on the thumb side.

144

Radius

The bone on the thumb side of the forearm.

145

Rectum

The lowermost end of the colon.

146

Red blood cells

Cells that carry oxygen to the body's tissues; also called erythrocytes.

147

Renal pelvis

A cone-shaped area that collects urine from the kidneys and funnels it through the ureter into the bladder.

148

Residual volume

The air that remains in the lungs after maximal expiration.

149

Respiration

The inhaling and exhaling of air; the physiological process the exchanges carbon dioxide from fresh air.

150

Respiratory compromise

The inability of the body to move gas effectively.

151

Respiratory system

All the structures of the body that contribute to the process of breathing, consisting of the upper and lower airways and their component parts.

152

Reticular activating system

Located in the upper brainstem; responsible for maintenance of consciousness, specifically one's level of arousal.

153

Retroperitoneal

Behind the abdominal cavity.

154

Sacroiliac joint

The connection point between the pelvis and the vertebral column.

155

Sacrum

One of three bones (sacrum and two pelvic bones) that make up the pelvic ring; consists of five fused sacral vertebrae.

156

Sagittal (lateral) plane

An imaginary line where the body is divided into left and right parts.

157

Salivary glands

The glands that produce saliva to keep the mouth and pharynx moist.

158

Scalp

The thick skin covering the cranium, which usually bears hair.

159

Scapula

The shoulder blade.

160

Sebaceous glands

Glands that produce an oily substance called sebum, which discharges along the shafts of the hairs.

161

Semen

Fluid ejaculated from the penis containing sperm.

162

Seminal vesicles

Storage sacs for sperm and seminal fluid, which empty into the urethra at the prostate.

163

Sensory nerves

The nerves that carry sensation such as touch, taste, smell, heat, cold, and pain from the body to the central nervous system.

164

Shock

An abnormal state associated with the in adequate oxygen and nutrients delivery to the cells of the body, also known as hypoperfusion.

165

Shoulder girdle

The proximal portion of the upper extremities, made up of the clavicle, the scapula, and the humerus.

166

Skeletal muscle

Muscle that is attached to bones and usually crosses at least one joint; striated, or voluntary, muscle.

167

Skeleton

The framework that gives the body it's recognizable form; also designed to allow motion of the body and protection of vital organs.

168

Small intestine

The portion of the digestive tube between the stomach and the cecum, consisting of the duodenum, jejunum, and ilium.

169

Smooth muscle

Involuntary muscle; it constitutes the bulk of the gastrointestinal tract and is present in nearly every organ to regulate automatic activity.

170

Somatic nervous system

The part of the nervous system that regulates activities over which there is voluntary control.

171

Sphincters

Muscles arranged in circles that are able to decrease the diameter of tubes. Examples are found within the rectum, bladder, and blood vessels.

172

Sphygmomanometer

A device used to measure blood pressure.

173

Spinal cord

An extension of the brain, composed of virtually all the nerves carrying messages between the brain and the rest of the body. It lies inside of and is protected by the spinal canal.

174

Sternum

The breast bone.

175

Stratum corneal layer

The outermost or dead layers of the skin.

176

Stroke volume (SV)

The volume of blood pumped forward with each ventricular contraction.

177

Subcutaneous tissue

Tissue, largely fat, that lies directly under the dermis and serves as an insulator of the body.

178

Superior vena cava

One of the two largest veins in the body; carries blood from the upper extremities, head, neck, and chest into the heart.

179

Sweat glands

The glands that secrete sweat, located in the dermal layer of the skin.

180

Symphysis

A type of joint that has grown together to form a very stable connection.

181

Synovial fluid

The small amount of liquid within a joint used as lubrication.

182

Synovial membrane

The lining of a joint that secretes synovial fluid into the joint space.

183

Systemic circulation

The portion of the circulatory system outside of the heart and lungs.

184

Systemic vascular resistance (SVR)

The resistance that blood must overcome to be able to move within the blood vessels; related to the amount of dilation or constriction in the blood vessel.

185

Systole

The contraction, or period of contraction, of the heart, especially that of the ventricles.

186

Temporal bones

The lateral bones on each side of the cranium; the temples.

187

Tendons

The fibrous connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone.

188

Testicle

A male genital gland that contains specialized cells that produce hormones and sperm.

189

Thoracic cage

The chest or rib cage.

190

Thoracic spine

The 12 vertebrae that lie between the cervical vertebrae and the lumbar vertebrae. One pair of ribs is attached to each of these vertebrae.

191

Thorax

The chest cavity that contains the heart, lungs, esophagus, and great vessels.

192

Thyroid cartilage

A firm prominence of cartilage that forms the upper part of the larynx; the Adam's apple.

193

Tibia

The shinbone; the larger of the two bones of the lower leg.

194

Tidal volume

The amount of air moved in and out of the lungs in one relaxed breath; about 500 mL for an adult.

195

Topographic anatomy

The superficial landmarks of the body that serve as guides to the structures that lie beneath them.

196

Trachea

The windpipe; the main trunk for air passing to and from the lungs.

197

Transverse (axial) plane

An imaginary line where the body is divided into top and bottom parts.

198

Triceps

The muscle in the back of the upper arm.

199

Tunica media

The middle and thickest layer of tissue of a blood vessel wall, composed of elastic tissue and smooth muscle cells that allow the vessel to expand or contract in response to changes in blood pressure and tissue demands.

200

Ulna

The inner bone of the forearm, on the side opposite the thumb.

201

Ureter

A small, hollow tube that carries urine from the kidneys to the bladder.

202

Urethra

The canal that conveys urine from the bladder to the outside of the body.

203

Urinary bladder

A sac behind the pubic symphysis made of smooth muscle that collects and stores urine.

204

Urinary system

The organs that control the discharge of certain waste materials filtered from the blood and excreted as urine.

205

Vagina

A muscular, distensible tune that connects the uterus with the vulva (the external female genitalia); also called the birth canal.

206

Vasa deferentia

The spermatic duct of the testicles; also called vas deferens.

207

Ventilation

The movement of air between the lungs and the environment.

208

Ventricle

One of two lower chambers of the heart.

209

Vertebrae

The 33 bones that make up the spinal column.

210

Voluntary muscle

Muscle that is under direct voluntary control of the brain and can be contracted or relaxed at will; skeletal, or striated, muscle.

211

V/Q ratio

A measurement that examines how much gas is being moved effectively and how much blood is flowing around the alveoli where gas exchange (perfusion) occurs.

212

White blood cells

Blood cells that have a role in the body's immune defense mechanisms against infection; also called leukocytes.

213

Xiphoid process

The narrow, cartilaginous lower tip of the sternum.

214

Zygomas

The quadrangular bones of the cheek, articulating with the frontal bone, the maxillae, the zygomatic process of the temporal bone, and the great wings of the sphenoid bone.