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1

study of hydrocarbons and their derivatives. compounds from living organisms

organic chemistry

1

prop-

3

1

hept-

7

1

10

dec-

1

type of stereoisomers. isomers with the same molecular and structual formulas but different orientations of atoms in space because of restricted rotation arout bonds. there is no free rotation

cis=on the same side

trans=across from

cis-trans isomers / geometric isomers

1

nonflammable solvents. refrigerants, propellants. can be toxic (CFCs/freons)

physical properties of halogenated methanes

2

arrangement where atoms are lined up. high energy state because the atoms can bump into each other. not an isomer

eclipsed conformation

2

CHCl3

chloroform, toxic

3

structural formula that uses grouping of atoms to show molecular structural information. in this, the  central atoms and atoms connected to it are written as a group

condensed structural formula

3

chemical reaction between a substance and oxygen (usually from air) that creates heat and light (as a flame). Products are CO2, H2O and heat

combustion reaction

3

type of constitutional isomer. differs in the placement of functional group

positional isomer

4

condensed structural formula

structural formula that uses grouping of atoms to show molecular structural information. in this, the  central atoms and atoms connected to it are written as a group

4

6

hex-

5

physical properties of halogenated methanes

nonflammable solvents. refrigerants, propellants. can be toxic (CFCs/freons)

7

substitution reaction

chemical reaction where a small reacting molecule replaces an atom or group of atoms on a hyrocarbon or hydrocarbon derivative

8

3

prop-

9

line-angle structural formula

structural formula where a line represents a C-C bond and a C atom is present at every point where 2 lines meet

9

halogenated alkane / alkyl halids

an alkane derivative where one ore more halogen atoms are present

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a cycloalkane derivative where one ore more halogen atoms are present

halogenated cycloalkane

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8

oct-

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branched-chain alkane

an alkane where one or more branches (of C atoms) are attached to a continuous chain of C atoms

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structural formula

two-dimensional structural representation that shows how the various atoms in a molecule are bonded to each other. 2 types: expanded and condensed

14

the specific 3 dimensional arrangement of atoms at a given instant that result from rotations about C-C single bonds

in cycloalkanes, no free rotation. there is "puckering" that can cause eclipsed or staggered

conformation

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structural formula that shows all atoms in a molecule and all bonds connecting the atoms

expanded structural formula

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1

meth-

17

4

but-

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eth-

2

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chloroform, toxic

CHCl3

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isomers that differ in the connectivity of atoms (the order in which atoms are attached to each other within molecules). 2 types: skeletal and positional

constitutional isomers

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hydrocarbon

a compound that contains only carbon and hydrogen atoms