Flashcards in Chapter 12- Cognitive Development In Middle Childhood Deck (30):
The ability to focus on several aspects of a problem and relate them rather than centering on just one aspect
The capacity to think through a series of steps and then mentally reverse direction, returning to the starting point
The ability to order items along a quantitive dimension, such as length or weight
The ability to seriate mentally
The ability to focus on relations between a general category and two specific categories
Advances in spatial reasoning are evidenced by the creation of this, Mental representations of familiar large-scale spaces, such as a neighborhood or school
Summarize the features of children's maps at each age listed below:
Preschool, ages 8 to 10, ages 10 to 12
Preschool: include landmarks on their maps they draw, but their arrangement is not always accurate
8 to 10: children's maps become better organized, showing landmarks along and organized route of travel and children are able to give clear, well-organized instructions for getting from one place to another by using a mental walk strategy-imagining another persons movement along a route. At the end of middle childhood, they form an overall view of a large scale space
10 to 12: grasp the notion of scale-the proportional relation between a space and it's map presentation
Explain how cultural frameworks influenced children's map making
In many non-Western communities, people rarely use maps for wayfinding but rely on information from neighbors, street vendors, and shopkeepers. Compared to their western age mates, non-Western children less often ride in cars and more often walk, which results in intimate neighborhood knowledge
When drying maps, Indian children represented a rich array of landmarks and aspects of social life, the US children drew a more formal, extended space, highlighting Main Street and key directions but including few landmarks
Describe the major limitation of concrete operational thought
Children think in an organized, logical fashion only when dealing with concrete information they can perceive directly. Their mental operations work poorly with abstract ideas-ones not apparent in the real world
Children master concrete operational tasks step-by-step/all at once. Explain your answer
Step-by-step. For example, they usually grasp the conservation of number first, followed by length, liquid, and mass, and then weight. This continuum of acquisition or gradual mastery of logical concepts is another indication of the limitations of concrete operational thinking
What are two examples that illustrate how culture and schooling contribute to children's mastery of conservation and other Piagetian tasks?
In tribal and village societies, conservation is often delayed. For example, among the Hausa of Nigeria, who live in small agricultural sediments and barely send their children to school, even basic conversation tasks are not understood until age 11 or later. The suggested taking part in relevant every day activities helps children master conservation and other Piagetian problems
The experience of going to school seems to promote mastery of Piaget tasks. When children of the same age are tested, those who have been in school longer do better on transitive inference problems
Brazilian 6 to 9-year-old the street vendors, who seldom attend school, do poorly on Piaget class inclusion task but they perform much better than economically advantage school children on versions relevant to street vending
Briefly summarize Case's information-processing view of cognitive development
Proposed that, with practice, cognitive schemas demand less attention and become more automatic. This frees up space in working memory so children can focus on combining old schemes and generating new ones.
Once the schemes of a Piaget stage are sufficiently automatic, enough working memory is available to integrate them into an improved representation. As a result, children acquire central conceptual structures-networks of concepts and relations that permit them to think more effectively in a wide range of situations
Networks of concepts and relations that permit children to think more effectively in a wide range of situations. They are broadly applicable principles that result in increasingly complex, systematic reasoning
Central conceptual structures
Based on Case's theory, what are two reasons that children's understandings appear in specific situations at different times rather than being mastered all at once?
First, different forms of the same logical insight, such as a various conservation tasks, vary in their processing demands, with those acquired later requiring more space in working memory
Second, children's experiences a vary widely. A child who listens to and tells stories but rarely draws pictures displays more advanced central conceptual structures in the storytelling
Many researchers believe that two types of change may be involved in the school-age child's approach to Piaget problems. List these two changes
Continuous improvement in logical skills and discontinuous restructuring of children's thinking
How does thought change as children enter the concrete operational stage?
Thought is now more logical, flexible, and organized than it was during early childhood
School age children develop this, the ability to think about language as a system
True or false: the rate of vocabulary growth during the school years exceeds that of early childhood
True, vocabulary increases fourfold eventually exceeding 40,000 words and on average, children learn about 20 new words a day
What are four strategies that assist school-age children in building their vocabularies?
They analyze the structure of complex words. From happy and decide, they quickly derive the meanings of happiness and decision
They figure out many more word meanings from context
Children benefit from conversations with more expert speakers, especially when their partners use and explain complex words
Reading contributes enormously to vocabulary growth
Provide an example illustrating the school-age child's more reflective and analytic approach to language
Permits them to appreciate the multiple meanings of words-to recognize, for example, that many words, such as cool or neat, have psychological as well as physical meanings. Cool shirt or that movie was really neat
This grasp of double meanings permits 8 to 10-year-olds to comprehend subtle metaphors, such as sharp as a tack and spilling the beans and also leads to changes in children's humor-riddles and puns that alternate between different meanings of a keyword are common
What are two grammatical achievements of middle childhood?
Mastery of complex grammatical constructions improves. For example, English-speaking children use the passive voice more frequently, and they more often extend it from an abbreviated structure into full statements-"it broke" "the glass was broken by Mary"
Advanced understanding of infinitive phrases-the difference between "John is eager to please" and "John is easy to please"
Describe three advances in pragmatic speech that take place during middle childhood
Children can adapt to the needs of listeners in challenging communicative situations, such as describing one object among a group of very similar objects. Stead of giving ambiguous descriptions, school-age children are precise
Gains in the ability to evaluate the clarity of others messages, and children become better at resolving inconsistencies
More sensitive to distinctions between what people say and what they mean. For example, knowing that when the mother says the garbage is beginning to smell she really means to take the garbage out
Summarize cultural differences in children's narrative styles of communication
Instead of the topic-focused style of most American school-age children, who describe an experience from beginning to end, African-American children often use a topic-associating style in which they blend several similar experiences. As a result, African-American children's narratives are usually longer and more complex than those of white children
What are two ways in which children can become bilingual?
By acquiring both languages at the same time in early childhood
By learning a second language after mastering the first
True or false: when bilingual children engage in code switching, they do not violate the grammar of either language. Briefly explain your response
Code switching-producing and utterance in one language that contains one or more guest words from the other
True, they do not violate the grammar of either language.
Children may engage in code switching because they lack the vocabulary to convey a particular thought in one language, so they use the other. Most often though, it's because their parents do so. Bilingual adults frequently code switch to express cultural identity, and children may follow suit
True or false: there is a sensitive period for second language development
True. Although mastery must begin sometime in childhood for full development to occur, a precise age cut off for you decline and second-language learning has not been established
List the cognitive benefits of bilingualism
Children develop denser gray matter, neurons and connective fibers, in areas of the left hemisphere devoted to language
Outperform others on tests of selective attention, analytical reasoning, concept formation, and cognitive flexibility. Also advanced in certain aspects of metalinguistic awareness, such as detection of errors in grammar, meaning, and conventions of conversation such as responding politely, relevantly, and informatively
Briefly describe the structure and benefits of Canada's language immersion programs
English-speaking children are taught entirely in French for several years.
This strategy succeeds in developing children who are proficient in both languages and who, by grade 6, achieve as well in reading, writing, and math as their counterparts in the English program
Summarize the current debate regarding how American ethnic minority children with limited English proficiency should be educated
Some believe that time spent communicating in the child's native tongue detracts from English-language achievement, which is crucial for success in the world of school and work
Other educators, committed to developing my Nordie children's native-language well fostering mastery of English, note that providing instruction in the native tongue let's minority children know that their heritage is respected and also prevents inadequate proficiency in both languages.
My Norquay children who gradually lose their first language as a result of being taught the second and up Limited in both languages for time which leads to serious academic difficulties and is believed to contribute to the high rates of school failure and drop out among low SES Hispanic youngsters